View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Soils used for bulk density determinations at a surface mine and an adjacent forest in West Virginia.†

 
Soil Geology and preparation Rock fragments pH EC Ca Mg K
% dS m−1 cmolc kg−1
1 Weathered brown sandstone-compacted 44 5.2 0.12 1.4 1.0 0.2
2 Weathered brown sandstone-uncompacted 45 4.7 0.17 1.2 1.3 0.2
3 Unweathered gray sandstone-compacted 61 7.6 0.10 1.8 1.5 0.1
4 Unweathered gray sandstone-uncompacted 63 8.3 0.11 2.7 1.4 0.1
NF Native forest soil 31 4.5 0.06 0.2 0.1 0.1
Data from DeLong, 2010.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Average bulk density values and standard deviations for four methods and five soils at a surface mine in West Virginia.

 
Method Bulk density
Mg m-3
Foam 1.76 a † (0.456)
Frame 1.69 a (0.334)
Sand cone 1.35 b (0.378)
Radiation 1.64 a (0.285)
Soil‡
1 1.76 a § (0.330)
2 1.84 a (0.211)
3 1.72 a (0.396)
4 1.70 a (0.213)
NF 1.05 b (0.162)
Means for methods with the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.
Soil 1, brown sandstone-compacted; Soil 2, brown sandstone-uncompacted; Soil 3, Gray sandstone-compacted; Soil 4-gray sandstone-uncompacted; NF, native forest soil.
§Means for soils with the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.



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Average bulk density and standard deviations for the interaction between each method and each soil on a surface mine and native forest in West Virginia.

 
Soil† Methods
Foam Frame Sand cone Radiation
Mg m−3
1 1.97 a‡ (0.273) 1.92 a (0.196) 1.38 b (0.354) 1.78 ab (0.100)
2 1.88 (0.124) 1.90 (0.195) 1.76 (0.373) 1.82 (0.067)
3 2.12 a (0.204) 1.79 ab (0.104) 1.18 b (0.339) 1.78 ab (0.046)
4 1.86 (0.220) 1.74 (0.175) 1.46 (0.173) 1.74 (0.055)
NF 0.99 (0.297) 1.12 (0.081) 0.97 (0.060) 1.10 (0.069)
Soil 1, brown sandstone-wcompacted; Soil 2, brown sandstone-uncompacted; Soil 3, Gray sandstone-compacted; Soil 4-gray sandstone-uncompacted; NF, native forest soil.
Means for soils across methods with the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.



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Average in-field time efficiency for making bulk density measurements for four methods and five soils on a surface mine in West Virginia.

 
Method In-field time efficiency
Min.
Foam 10.2 c †
Frame 26.8 a
Sand cone 14.0 b
Radiation 5.8 d
Soil‡ In-field time efficiency
Min.
1 17.2 a §
2 15.7 ab
3 12.5 c
4 11.9 c
NF 13.6 bc
Means for methods with the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.
Soil 1, brown sandstone-compacted; Soil 2, brown sandstone-uncompacted; Soil 3, Gray sandstone-compacted; Soil 4-gray sandstone-uncompacted; NF, native forest soil.
§Means for soils with the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Average in-field time efficiency for the interaction between each of the four methods on each of the five soils at a surface mine and native forest in West Virginia.

 
Soil† Methods
Foam Frame Sand cone Radiation
Min./sample
1 13.0 c‡ 33.6 a 17.8 b 4.4 d
2 12.0 c 27.2 a 17.0 b 6.4 d
3 8.6 c 22.6 a 12.0 b 6.8 d
4 7.8 c 22.8 a 11.8 b 5.2 d
NF 9.6 c 27.6 a 11.2 b 6.0 d
Soil 1, brown sandstone-compacted; Soil 2, brown sandstone-uncompacted; Soil 3, Gray sandstone-compacted; Soil 4-gray sandstone-uncompacted; NF, native forest soil.
Means for each soil across methods with the same letter are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.