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Effect of poultry litter vs. inorganic fertilization and no-till (NT) vs. conventional tillage (CT) on soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total C, total N, and C/N ratio at the 0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 20-cm depths for the soybean and corn cropping systems.

 
Depth and tillage Fertilization pH CEC Total C Total N C/N ratio
cm cmol kg −1 g kg −1
Soybean
0–5
 NT inorganic 6.5 a† 9.15 b 11.10 b 1.18 b 9.39 a
litter 6.4 a 12.52 a 18.33 a 1.49 a 12.33 a
 CT inorganic 5.9 b 6.12 c 9.00 bc 0.80 c 11.27 a
litter 6.2 ab 6.10 c 8.46 c 0.71 c 11.90 a
5–10
 NT inorganic 6.0 a 5.42 a 7.25 a 0.73 a 9.95 a
litter 6.0 a 6.55 a 8.48 a 0.66 a 12.81 a
 CT inorganic 6.2 a 5.39 a 7.37 a 0.70 a 10.56 a
litter 6.3 a 5.68 a 7.41 a 0.62 a 11.87 a
10–20
 NT inorganic 5.9 b 4.87 a 5.49 a 0.36 a 15.36 a
litter 5.9 b 5.27 a 6.35 a 0.49 a 12.97 ab
 CT inorganic 6.3 a 5.07 a 5.24 a 0.53 a 9.88 b
litter 6.4 a 4.78 a 4.88 a 0.49 a 9.89 b
LSD(0.05)‡ 0.4 1.54 1.58 0.18 3.10
Corn
0–5
 NT inorganic 6.5 a 9.53 b 17.32 b 1.28 b 13.48 a
litter 6.5 a 13.79 a 22.47 a 1.82 a 12.33 a
 CT inorganic 6.0 b 5.23 d 8.30 d 0.77 c 10.80 a
litter 6.4 a 7.54 c 11.67 c 0.94 c 12.46 a
5–10
 NT inorganic 5.9 b 5.79 ab 8.47 b 0.73 a 11.55 a
litter 6.0 ab 6.42 ab 10.36 a 0.76 a 13.59 a
 CT inorganic 6.3 a 5.00 b 7.58 b 0.63 a 11.97 a
litter 6.3 a 6.72 a 9.33 ab 0.71 a 13.22 a
10–20
 NT inorganic 5.6 b 4.30 a 5.89 a 0.45 a 13.00 a
litter 5.7 b 5.14 a 6.94 a 0.58 a 11.91 a
 CT inorganic 6.2 a 4.35 a 5.26 a 0.47 a 12.24 a
litter 6.1 a 5.09 a 5.99 a 0.47a 12.64 a
LSD(0.05)‡ 0.4 1.87 2.26 0.19 4.43
Means within a column followed by the same letter do not significantly differ for comparisons within a depth (0.05 level).
Comparison of means among depth.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Analysis of variance results for soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total C, Total N and C/N ratio.

 
Source P > F (0.05)
pH CEC Total C Total N C/N ratio
Soybean
Depth 0.4805 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.6923
Litter 0.5521 0.0006 0.0004 0.4166 0.4623
Depth × litter 0.9603 0.0144 0.0353 0.1220 0.0473
Tillage 0.2956 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0251
Depth × tillage 0.0032 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0287
Litter × tillage 0.3389 0.0005 <0.0001 0.0106 0.6527
Depth × litter × tillage 0.6228 0.0242 0.0065 0.0912 0.9089
Corn
Depth <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.9080
Litter 0.0152 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0001 0.7121
Depth × litter 0.4655 0.0001 <0.0001 0.0039 0.4275
Tillage 0.0099 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.6575
Depth × tillage <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.9298
Litter × tillage 0.8497 0.4728 0.1697 0.0439 0.7398
Depth × litter × tillage 0.1409 0.0294 0.0387 0.0826 0.6446



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Effect of poultry litter vs. inorganic fertilization and no-till (NT) vs. conventional tillage (CT) on soil extractable levels of K, Mg, Ca, P, at the 0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 20-cm depths for the soybean and corn cropping systems.

 
Depth and tillage Fertilization P K Ca Mg
cm mg kg−1
Soybean
0–5
 NT inorganic 64.0 b† 78.6 b 1164.1 b 183.9 b
litter 156.5 a 137.7 a 1643.3 a 249.5 a
 CT inorganic 65.1 b 102.5 b 629.9 c 108.1 c
litter 74.4 b 107.3 b 692.9 c 115.1 c
5–10
 NT inorganic 28.9 c 41.9 b 541.6 a 85.5 a
litter 80.6 a 95.1 a 680.8 a 115.1 a
 CT inorganic 35.5 b 59.3 b 586.9 a 95.1 a
litter 51.5 b 76.5 b 625.9 a 101.0 a
10–20
 NT inorganic 24.0 a 32.0 b 408.3 a 78.4 a
litter 45.3 a 76.6 a 460.0 a 86.6 a
 CT inorganic 23.8 a 37.9 b 476.6 a 83.4 a
litter 30.5 a 47.9 ab 531.0 a 77.4 a
LSD(0.05)‡ 21.86 35.26 240.44 49.18
Corn
0–5
 NT inorganic 61.6 c 96.5 c 1221.1 b 195.9 b
litter 179.9 a 187.3 a 1859.8 a 266.4 a
 CT inorganic 49.5 c 70.0 d 518.1 d 97.0 d
litter 126.4 b 161.8 b 895.8 c 141.3 c
5–10
 NT inorganic 25.0 b 48.9 b 529.9 a 88.8 a
litter 81.5 a 136.9 a 653.1 a 110.1 a
 CT inorganic 20.8 b 38.5 b 529.9 a 94.6 a
litter 71.6 a 120.1 a 739.1 a 118.6 a
10–20
 NT inorganic 21.6 bc 35.8 b 335.5 a 69.4 a
litter 49.5 a 103.8 a 397.5 a 77.9 a
 CT inorganic 12.3 c 25.5 b 414.5 a 79.1 a
litter 34.0 ab 80.9 a 451.8 a 80.6 a
LSD(0.05)‡ 19.1 30.3 286.5 49.6
Means within a column followed by the same letter do not significantly differ for comparisons within a depth (0.05 level).
Comparison of means among depth.



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Analysis of variance results for K, Mg, Ca, and P.

 
Source P > F (0.05)
P K Ca Mg
Soybean
Depth <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Litter <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0325
Depth × litter 0.0062 0.8043 0.0599 0.2344
Tillage <0.0001 0.3536 <0.0001 <0.0001
Depth × tillage 0.0075 0.7089 <0.0001 <0.0001
Litter × tillage <0.0001 0.0004 0.0326 0.0581
Depth × litter × tillage 0.0094 0.6830 0.0821 0.5131
Corn
Depth <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Litter <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Depth × litter <0.0001 0.0247 0.0001 0.0051
Tillage <0.0001 0.0002 <0.0001 <0.0001
Depth × tillage 0.0052 0.4929 <0.0001 <0.0001
Litter × tillage 0.0090 0.5009 0.4038 0.4142
Depth × litter × tillage 0.0408 0.8201 0.1992 0.6274



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Effect of poultry litter vs. inorganic fertilization and no-till (NT) vs. conventional tillage (CT) on soil C and N mineralization and C turnover at the 0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 20-cm depths during the 90-d laboratory incubation for the soybean and corn cropping systems.

 
Depth and tillage Fertilization C mineralization C turnover N mineralization
cm mg kg −1
Soybean
0–5
 NT inorganic 935 b† 8.4 b 62.2 b
litter 1062 a 5.8 c 76.2 a
 CT inorganic 857 b 9.5 b 63.1 b
litter 890 b 10.5 a 57.7 b
5–10
 NT inorganic 317 b 4.3 b 15.5 b
litter 392 b 4.6 b 24.5 ab
 CT inorganic 566 a 7.7 a 32.2 a
litter 569 a 7.6 a 31.9 a
10–20
 NT inorganic 244 b 4.4 b 9.5 a
litter 351 a 5.6 b 10.1 a
 CT inorganic 362 a 7.0 a 9.8 a
litter 346 a 7.1 a 11.4 a
LSD(0.05)‡ 111 1.7 11.8
Corn
0–5
 NT inorganic 1053 b 9.5 a 63.5 b
litter 1199 a 5.3 c 69.1 b
 CT inorganic 809 d 9.7 a 47.0 c
litter 949 c 8.1 b 80.0 a
5–10
 NT inorganic 443 b 5.2.b 23.1 b
litter 470 b 4.5 b 27.2 b
 CT inorganic 559 b 7.4 a 25.6 b
litter 659 a 7.1 a 43.4 a
10–20
 NT inorganic 294 b 6.0 a 9.7 a
litter 308 ab 4.5 b 10.6 a
 CT inorganic 311 ab 5.9 a 12.1 a
litter 379 a 6.6 a 10.7 a
LSD(0.05)‡ 108 1.2 13.3
Means within a column followed by the same letter do not significantly differ for comparisons within a depth (0.05 level).
Comparison of means among depth.



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Analysis of variance results for C and N mineralization and turnover C.

 
P > F (0.05)
Source C mineralization C turnover N mineralization
Soybean
Depth <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Litter 0.0051 0.9436 0.2186
Depth × litter 0.6157 0.1157 0.6464
Tillage 0.0130 <0.0001 0.4377
Depth × tillage <0.0001 0.2199 0.0025
Litter × tillage 0.0131 0.1795 0.0320
Depth × litter × tillage 0.8599 0.0048 0.2785
Corn
Depth <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Litter 0.0001 <0.0001 0.0002
Depth × litter 0.1205 <0.0001 0.0028
Tillage 0.4814 <0.0001 0.1896
Depth × tillage <0.0001 0.1970 0.0995
Litter × tillage 0.2426 0.0024 0.0124
Depth × litter × tillage 0.6374 0.1465 0.0239