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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 59 No. 1, p. 185-191
     
    Received: Dec 8, 1993
    Published: Jan, 1995


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doi:10.2136/sssaj1995.03615995005900010028x

Tillage and Traffic Influences on Water and Solute Transport in Corn-Soybean Systems

  1. L. Wu ,
  2. R. R. Allmaras,
  3. J. B. Swan and
  4. S. D. Logsdon
  1. Dep. of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521
    USDA-ARS and Soil Sci. Dep., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
    Dep. of Agronomy, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011
    USDA-ARS, National Soil Tilth Lab., Ames, IA 50011

Abstract

Abstract

Tillage management many influence water and solute movement throughout the root zone. To evaluate tillage effects on solute transport, parameters were estimated from breakthrough curves and directly measured macropores in no-till (NT) and moldboard-plowing (MBD) systems with traffic control on a Nicollet clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludoll) and a Rozetta silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf). Ridge tillage recently imposed on long-term NT (RT/NT) was compared with chisel tillage (CHT) on a Seaton silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) where manure was injected without traffic control. Breakthrough curves (Br tracer) were measured in undisturbed soil cores from the Ap horizon (0–250 mm) and adjacent subsoil (250–500 mm) and were fitted to a physical, nonequilibrium two-domain model to estimate mean pore-water velocity of the mobile domain (Vm) and the fraction of water (v) participating in Br transport. The Vm ranged from 0.10 to 10 mm s−1, while v ranged from 0.02 to 0.50. Means did not differ between the Nicollet and Rozetta soils in 1988, yet significant tillage × horizon interactions indicated more solute bypass in NT than in MBD. More macropores and a larger macropore conductivity (Km) were observed in NT than in MBD. Greater Vm and smaller v occurred (P < 0.05) in CHT than in RT/NT because RT/NT lacked secondary cultivation to remove compaction from manure injection. Traffic control in NT on the Nicollet and Rozetta soils produced high Vm and low v compared with RT/NT on the Seaton soil. Both Vm and v can be estimated from the more easily measured Km.

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