View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

List of fields of three groups used for biosolids reclamation of strip-mined and nonmined degraded soils at Fulton County, Illinois.

 
Location FLD area Cum biosolids appl. rate No of appl. yrs Yrs since last appl
Field no. Latitude Longitude Soil taxonomy
ha Mg ha−1
Group I: mine spoil soil
F29 (Fert CL) 40°27′44″N 90°06′42″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 12.2 1.2 1 27
F32 40°27′33″N 90°05′02″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 3.6 602 11 2
F39 40°32′28″N 90°05′35″W Lenzwheel silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 12.4 646 11 2
F25 40°28′49″N 90°03′43″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 15.4 764 13 6
F27 40°28′20″N 90°03′30″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 15.2 847 16 4
F28 40°28′12″N 90°04′26″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 11.1 903 12 4
F26 40°28′22″N 90°03′53″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 25.9 982 16 6
F13 40°29′11″N 90°05′47″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 9.8 1068 17 2
F12 40°28′55″N 90°06′06″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 10.9 1093 17 6
F33 40°27′43″N 90°04′53″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 6.2 1110 12 2
F8 40°31′09″N 90°05′54″W Lenzwheel silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 18.2 1131 18 4
F30 40°27′51″N 90°04′06″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 27.9 1169 15 6
F11 40°29′20″N 90°06′34″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 8.5 1180 16 6
F14 40°29′23″N 90°05′32″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 20.0 1184 20 2
F4 40°30′42″N 90°05′34″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 38.9 1216 19 4
F15 40°29′45″N 90°04′22″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 15.7 1238 16 2
F5 40°31′03″N 90°05′42″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 8.3 1361 20 3
F7 40°31′22″N 90°06′04″W Lenzwheel silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 42.2 1385 19 4
F3 40°30′10″N 90°06′00″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 16.6 1420 22 2
F1 40°29′37″N 90°06′33″W Lenzwheel silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 16.0 1428 19 2
F2 40°29′53″N 90°06′02″W Lenzburg silt loam: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, calcareous, mesic Alfic Udarents 19.0 1654 20 4
Group II: “fine” mine spoil soil (mine spoil soil + pre-mined soil)
F40 40°32′03″N 90°05′34″W (1/2) Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents and (1/2) Sable silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls 27.5 497 8 23
F44 40°32′54″N 90°04′44″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 12.0 805 12 2
F45 40°33′28″N 90°05′31″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 46.7 845 13 3
F42 40°32′38″N 90°05′16″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 65.6 858 13 3
F41 40°32′42″N 90°05′56″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 17.5 979 12 2
F43 40°32′55″N 90°05′34″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 21.0 983 11 2
F47 40°33′07″N 90°04′58″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 9.4 1121 12 2
F9 40°30′55″N 90°06′32″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 26.7 1269 22 3
F17 40°30′45″N 90°06′09″W Rapatee silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Alfic Udarents 27.7 1417 23 3
Group III: Nonmined soil
F18–2 (Fert CL)† 40°27′51″N 90°06′22″W Sable silty clay loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls 22.7 1.0 1 27
F22 40°28′38″N 90°04′05″W Clarksdale Silt loam: Fine smectitic, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs 11.4 455 13 22
F23 40°28′28″N 90°05′07″W Clarksdale Silt loam: Fine smectitic, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs 6.2 473 10 22
F20 40°28′36″N 90°04′09″W Ipava Silt loam: Fine, smectitic, mesic Aquic Argiudolls 40.9 531 11 22
F31 40°27′25″N 90°04′47″W Orthents, silty, undulating: Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Aquic Udifluvents 4.4 557 10 22
F34 40°27′54″N 90°05′04″W Clarksdale Silt loam: Fine smectitic, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs 22.6 566 10 22
F21 40°28′52″N 90°04′12″W Greenbush Silt loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Mollic Hapludalfs 11.3 618 12 22
F19 40°29′11″N 90°03′45″W Clarksdale Silt loam: Fine smectitic, mesic Udollic Endoaqualfs 13.9 644 11 22
F37 40°26′54″N 90°03′05″W Greenbush Silt loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Mollic Hapludalfs 24.4 801 12 4
F35 40°27′18″N 90°03′00″W Rozetta Silt loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs 48.1 1049 13 4
F10 40°29′12″N 90°06′58″W Keomah silt loam: Fine, smectitic, mesic, Aeric Endoaqualfs 30.8 1073 14 14
F36 40°27′24″N 90°02′31″W Ipava Silt loam: Fine, smectitic, mesic Aquic Argiudolls 19.8 1083 12 4
F16 40°29′25″N 90°05′00″W Rozetta Silt loam: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs 60.8 1084 16 6
Also serve as control for Group II.
Dry weight.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Yearly biosolids application rate (Mg ha−1, dry weight) to fields of three groups at Fulton County land reclamation site (listed from low to high rates of cumulative application in each group).

 
Field no. ′72 ′73 ′74 ′75 ′76 ′77 ′78 ′79 ′80 ′81 ′82 ′83 ′84 ′85 ′86 ′87 ′88 ′89 ′90 ′91 ′92 ′93 ′94 ′95 ′96 ′97 ′98 ′99 ′00 ′01 ′02 ′03 ′04 ′05
Group I: mine spoil soil
F29 (Fert CL) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F32 0 0 8.1 50 64 0 75 50 16 45 38 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 88 0 0 125 0
F39 0 0 0 0 52 60 43 65 63 55 30 45 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 117 0 0 87 0
F25 0 0 22 65 0 112 85 27 85 41 41 58 32 0 0 0 0 86 0 0 0 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 82 0 0 0 0 0
F27 0 0 45 68 86 77 9.2 83 81 54 50 33 30 0 39 10 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 0 0 0
F28 0 0 39 82 95 0 79 135 37 68 68 64 40 0 0 0 95 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 102 0 0 0
F26 0 0 61 28 98 108 88 17 97 57 43 64 42 0 23 54 0 101 0 0 0 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 0
F13 0 0 36 33 40 81 44 82 74 67 64 0 14 34 55 0 89 0 51 0 24 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 107 0 0 98 0
F12 0 0 38 43 61 58 0 91 26 150 28 44 102 0 52 53 93 0 87 0 0 0 25 50 0 0 0 0 90 0 0 0 0 0
F33 0 0 9.2 69 91 0 98 124 32 74 81 0 56 0 0 0 0 269 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 0 123 0
F8 0 2.2 27 57 72 0 64 58 76 59 43 0 27 84 57 61 67 65 0 169 0 0 47 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97 0 0 0
F30 0 0 45 43 101 126 23 115 104 33 78 55 0 0 0 57 66 0 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 193 0 0 51 0 0 0 0 0
F11 0 0 66 79 119 0 109 105 60 63 18 0 44 0 47 58 63 196 0 0 0 0 25 51 0 0 0 0 77 0 0 0 0 0
F14 0 0 15 30 23 64 75 20 85 134 42 46 29 24 56 0 73 71 0 104 27 0 0 72 0 0 0 0 0 108 0 0 86 0
F4 0 1.1 55 86 117 67 0 94 48 56 50 41 19 0 54 0 31 81 0 0 110 0 25 51 0 0 145 0 0 0 85 0 0 0
F15 0 0 65 67 133 91 19 130 70 46 45 0 38 0 0 0 91 0 159 0 0 0 30 31 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 122 0
F5 0 1.3 52 90 81 0 53 75 73 70 38 0 23 0 67 38 62 108 0 185 73 0 25 26 0 0 0 126 0 0 0 95 0 0
F7 0 1.1 48 50 13 64 59 0 64 68 59 59 34 79 0 56 90 0 67 376 70 0 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 101 0 0 0
F3 13 2.7 55 23 83 0 83 14 90 55 0 44 34 49 0 58 23 108 148 24 121 0 0 99 0 0 126 0 76 0 0 0 92 0
F1 0 0 43 65 121 0 116 0 94 52 69 41 30 23 0 65 88 0 82 125 148 0 25 52 0 0 0 0 0 98 0 0 92 0
F2 0 0 54 41 129 83 36 107 51 60 75 0 26 20 0 56 68 131 0 375 62 0 25 15 0 0 149 0 0 0 91 0 0 0
Group II: “fine” mine spoil soil (Mine spoil soil + pre-mined soil)
F40 0 0 0 0 55 29 60 73 56 58 84 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F44 0 0 0 0 38 1.3 101 99 110 76 60 44 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116 0 0 91 0
F45 0 0 0 0 33 19 62 86 77 66 58 56 22 0 0 49 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 132 0 0 0 100 0 0
F42 0 0 0 0 59 65 75 124 114 69 47 20 47 0 0 28 0 73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 0 0 76 0 0
F41 0 0 0 0 57 65 46 83 35 58 63 62 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 254 0 0 0 110 0 0 109 0
F43 0 0 0 0 100 78 53 107 66 54 42 0 77 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 217 0 0 0 113 0 0 76 0
F47 0 0 0 0 46 85 90 88 74 65 95 68 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 239 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 0 0 93 0
F9 4.7 1.1 37 15 46 28 67 0 93 54 66 28 26 78 0 55 84 166 0 172 6 0 20 64 0 0 0 71 0 0 0 85 0 0
F17 4.9 4.3 43 47 34 84 19 120 26 54 50 0 44 59 51 54 32 73 88 0 231 0 24 52 0 0 0 128 0 0 0 94 0 0
Group III: nonmined soil
F18–2 (Fert CL) † 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F22 5.2 1.3 14 28 48 17 59 64 45 43 63 41 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F23 0 0 0 39 17 55 56 67 31 54 61 61 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F20 0 0.9 52 20 39 32 58 69 54 57 83 0 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F31 0 0 19 94 14 60 68 78 56 60 71 0 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F34 0 0 0 71 18 64 58 59 57 57 63 73 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F21 0 3.4 61 27 32 62 60 66 56 59 61 70 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F19 0 3.1 37 20 50 41 37 75 98 63 106 0 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F37 0 0 16 65 16 53 57 80 58 56 97 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 205 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 0 0 0
F35 0 0 0 25 51 39 58 61 58 57 60 67 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 369 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 0 0 0 40 0 0 0
F10 0 0 58 45 67 69 60 63 56 58 16 65 57 0 0 0 90 0 93 0 275 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F36 0 0 0 85 52 65 67 60 46 56 97 0 51 0 0 0 0 0 0 379 0 0 0 0 0 0 92 0 0 0 35 0 0 0
F16 0 0 39 59 59 42 43 84 123 56 56 0 78 0 0 52 0 124 0 106 0 0 28 78 0 0 0 0 57 0 0 0 0 0
Also server as control for Group II.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Some properties of lagooned biosolids applied to fields for land reclamation at Fulton County, Illinois over a period of 33 yr.

 
Year Type of biosolids Tot solids Volatile solids Org. C‡ Org. N NH4–N C/N Total Fe Total Al
% %
1972† liquid 4.0 57.0 33.1 4.01 3.26 4.5 4.56 1.04
1973† liquid 4.4 53.9 31.3 3.41 2.50 5.3 3.18 1.06
1974 liquid 4.1 48.8 28.3 2.20 2.90 5.5 4.40 1.40
1975 liquid 4.7 46.8 27.1 3.19 2.47 4.8 4.73 1.30
1976 liquid 4.9 47.6 27.6 2.65 2.10 5.8 5.61 1.57
1977 liquid 2.9 42.1 24.4 2.70 2.16 5.0 5.06 1.50
1978 liquid 3.6 43.5 25.2 2.71 2.20 5.1 4.08 1.43
1979 liquid 3.8 42.4 24.6 2.36 1.68 6.1 4.65 1.23
1980 liquid 3.7 33.4 19.4 2.82 1.47 4.5 4.27 1.53
1980 dewatered§ 51.8 29.2 16.9 1.08 0.14 13.9 4.19 0.56
1981 liquid 4.4 44.6 25.9 2.61 1.99 5.6 4.51 1.27
1981 dewatered§ 47.9 22.8 13.2 1.70 0.18 7.0 5.20 1.12
1982 liquid 3.8 42.8 24.8 2.73 1.71 5.6 4.21 1.40
1982 dewatered§ 63.6 14.6 8.5 0.71 0.02 11.6 1.97 0.51
1983 liquid 3.1 45.3 26.3 2.67 1.83 5.8 4.14 1.29
1984 liquid 2.2 38.4 22.3 3.59 1.62 4.3 4.57 1.29
1984 dewatered§ 73.0 14.9 8.6 0.63 0.08 12.2 2.27 0.89
1985 liquid 6.1 32.5 18.9 2.54 0.96 5.4 4.10 1.11
1985 dewatered§ 66.0 19.7 11.4 0.83 0.05 13.0 2.59 0.56
1986 dewatered§ 64.6 16.9 9.8 0.67 0.08 13.1 2.11 0.78
1987 dewatered§ 30.2 29.5 17.1 1.24 0.52 9.7 1.86 0.42
1987 air-dried§ 66.6 25.9 15.0 1.07 0.11 12.8 2.09 0.78
1988 dewatered§ 25.0 35.4 20.5 1.64 0.54 9.4 1.09 0.30
1988 air-dried§ 69.1 21.1 12.2 0.76 0.01 15.9 1.86 0.66
1989 dewatered§ 34.6 32.7 19.0 1.36 0.59 9.7 4.01 1.29
1989 air-dried§ 70.8 24.4 14.2 0.93 0.32 11.3 2.64 1.07
1990 dewatered§ 40.6 29.1 16.9 1.21 0.32 11.0 3.04 1.29
1990 air-dried§ 69.2 25.3 14.7 0.97 0.18 12.8 2.83 1.11
1991 dewatered§ 37.5 24.8 14.4 1.19 0.34 9.3 5.35 1.31
1991 air-dried§ 68.0 34.9 20.2 1.33 0.41 11.7 2.74 1.37
1992 dewatered§ 23.8 30.8 17.9 1.72 0.70 7.4 4.88 1.50
1992 air-dried§ 66.0 35.6 20.6 1.62 0.43 10.1 2.51 1.55
1993 no application
1994 dewatered ND¶ ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
1995 dewatered ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
1996 no application
1997 air-dried 70.6 35.7 20.7 1.41 0.32 12.0 3.04 1.14
1998 air-dried 78.3 38.3 22.2 1.60 0.56 10.3 2.90 1.09
1999 air-dried 68.9 39.2 22.7 1.71 0.48 10.4 3.15 1.40
2000 air-dried 68.6 31.1 18.0 1.19 0.14 13.5 2.28 1.11
2001 air-dried 70.2 35.4 20.5 1.47 0.40 11.0 3.40 1.77
2002 air-dried 71.3 41.3 24.0 2.00 0.41 9.9 3.74 1.54
2003 air-dried 70.4 31.0 18.0 1.37 0.23 11.3 ND ND
2004 air-dried 65.2 43.7 25.3 1.96 0.41 10.7 ND ND
Mean liquid 4.0 44.2 25.7 2.87 2.06 5.2 4.43 1.31
dewatered 46.6 25.0 14.5 1.17 0.25 10.6 3.21 0.88
air-dried 69.5 33.1 19.2 1.38 0.31 11.7 2.76 1.22
Sampled at the just completion of anaerobic digestion, also called digester drawoff.
Org. C, volatile solids/1.724.
§ Dewatered and air-dried biosolids containing clay inadvertently scraped from the earthen surface of holding basins or unpaved lagoons/drying cells.
ND, not determined.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Dynamics of soil organic carbon concentration (%) at 0- to 15-cm depth along with biosolids application in fields of three groups at Fulton County land reclamation site (listed from low to high rates of cumulative biosolids application in each group).

 
Field no. ′72 ′73 ′74 ′75 ′76 ′77 ′78 ′79 ′80 ′81 ′82 ′83 ′84 ′85 ′86 ′87 ′88 ′89 ′90 ′91 ′92 ′93 ′94 ′95 ′96 ′97 ′98 ′99 ′00 ′01 ′02 ′03 ′04 ′05 ′06
Group I: mine spoil soil
F29 (Fert CL) ND† ND ND ND 0.62 ND 0.84 0.67 0.71 0.94 0.89 ND 0.87 0.87 1.04 1.08 0.90 1.07 0.97 1.04 1.08 0.92 1.03 0.96 0.89 0.76 1.08 0.94 0.81 0.86 0.96 0.91 0.90 1.12 0.96
F32 ND ND 0.67 0.56 1.12 1.70 1.99 2.59 3.27 3.10 3.60 3.66 4.02 4.56 4.24 4.23 4.28 4.44 4.24 4.20 3.98 4.08 4.19 3.87 3.95 3.52 3.62 3.59 3.32 2.88 3.68 3.95 3.51 4.13 4.11
F39 ND ND ND 0.73 ND 0.98 1.96 1.99 1.98 3.57 3.76 4.34 4.91 3.63 3.90 4.27 3.08 3.66 3.30 3.85 3.71 3.58 3.28 2.99 3.38 3.42 3.39 2.53 2.38 2.04 3.29 3.24 3.02 3.68 3.49
F25 ND ND 1.28 1.45 2.10 2.11 3.39 4.01 4.51 5.36 5.88 6.95 6.76 6.93 6.59 6.85 6.32 6.20 6.25 6.26 5.41 4.77 5.46 5.62 5.68 5.10 5.16 4.85 5.09 5.39 4.74 5.12 4.46 4.81 4.55
F27 ND ND ND 0.98 1.87 2.66 3.36 3.37 3.29 4.29 5.30 5.83 5.37 5.05 5.61 5.26 5.56 5.60 4.95 5.34 5.02 4.63 4.55 5.14 4.81 3.92 4.31 3.92 3.95 3.71 3.78 4.52 3.85 4.09 3.64
F28 ND ND 0.66 0.69 1.38 2.34 3.10 3.35 4.06 4.52 4.63 5.09 5.39 5.96 6.51 5.77 5.56 6.00 5.83 5.74 5.49 5.57 5.37 5.78 5.38 4.76 4.93 4.38 4.71 4.38 4.10 4.73 4.47 4.58 4.07
F26 ND ND 1.15 1.16 1.59 2.41 3.59 3.13 4.74 5.65 5.40 5.68 5.14 5.32 5.63 5.53 6.08 5.82 5.41 5.01 5.03 4.64 4.67 4.73 4.75 4.15 4.37 4.00 4.02 4.19 3.83 4.29 3.85 3.98 3.67
F13 ND ND 0.34 0.69 0.97 1.62 2.58 2.85 4.05 4.60 5.18 5.56 5.61 5.95 5.51 5.72 5.81 5.35 5.37 5.76 5.60 4.67 5.63 5.31 4.96 4.11 4.45 4.21 3.96 4.27 5.34 4.67 4.04 4.99 4.55
F12 ND ND 0.52 0.59 0.99 1.86 2.98 2.67 3.61 4.12 4.11 4.15 4.30 4.73 4.76 4.98 5.13 4.79 4.73 4.70 4.82 4.19 4.99 4.06 4.13 3.65 3.47 3.54 3.74 4.61 4.74 4.49 3.70 3.89 3.35
F33 ND ND 0.57 0.37 0.99 1.99 2.37 3.15 3.77 4.26 4.14 4.90 4.85 4.85 5.00 5.70 5.67 5.09 6.76 6.99 6.98 6.96 6.80 6.24 6.31 5.11 4.80 5.44 5.27 5.25 6.19 5.77 5.49 5.45 5.09
F8 ND ND 0.22 0.37 0.95 1.97 2.22 2.82 3.18 3.31 4.22 4.10 4.00 4.57 5.14 4.67 4.30 4.68 5.70 5.22 6.29 5.05 5.27 4.49 4.27 3.90 4.20 4.09 4.23 3.90 4.34 4.71 4.57 4.24 4.14
F30 ND ND 0.53 0.84 1.06 1.89 3.57 3.57 2.94 4.73 4.98 5.26 5.14 4.85 4.69 4.94 5.30 5.02 4.90 5.16 5.36 4.77 5.11 4.57 5.05 4.47 4.28 4.74 4.62 4.75 4.55 4.15 4.08 3.88 3.67
F11 ND ND 0.73 1.15 1.48 3.17 3.51 4.20 5.09 5.14 5.41 5.23 5.28 5.42 4.43 4.74 4.34 5.22 5.56 5.82 5.58 5.09 5.67 5.54 5.37 4.77 4.33 4.40 4.39 4.58 4.11 4.76 4.13 4.23 4.35
F14 ND ND 0.67 0.80 0.72 1.41 2.13 2.68 2.87 4.13 4.37 4.21 4.19 4.95 4.87 4.80 4.44 4.24 5.25 4.67 5.11 4.94 4.91 4.85 4.58 3.87 4.04 3.74 3.74 3.74 4.41 4.52 3.93 4.42 4.13
F4 ND ND 0.63 1.13 1.26 2.78 3.99 3.74 4.54 4.63 5.25 5.00 5.32 5.90 6.28 5.82 6.00 5.84 5.96 5.71 5.58 4.59 5.23 5.03 4.62 4.23 4.35 5.43 5.23 4.95 4.47 5.44 4.84 5.33 5.01
F15 ND ND 0.77 0.70 1.22 2.02 3.54 3.10 4.50 4.55 4.79 5.12 4.31 4.96 4.44 4.64 5.16 5.08 4.75 5.69 4.23 4.89 5.21 4.86 4.44 3.99 3.67 4.05 3.44 3.57 4.01 4.45 4.05 4.50 4.07
F5 ND ND 0.38 0.89 1.14 2.29 2.52 3.30 3.56 3.46 3.87 3.99 4.10 3.73 4.08 4.24 4.32 4.20 4.49 5.02 5.04 5.38 5.26 5.16 5.28 4.37 5.00 4.87 5.57 5.27 5.10 5.65 5.81 5.25 4.97
F7 ND ND 0.31 0.59 1.20 0.98 2.29 2.66 2.93 3.28 2.97 2.84 3.09 3.02 3.22 2.84 3.70 3.51 3.48 3.25 4.20 3.00 3.76 3.78 3.34 3.19 3.42 3.37 3.30 3.07 3.28 4.07 3.53 3.60 3.41
F3 0.80 ND 0.86 0.96 1.23 2.24 3.09 3.80 4.15 4.57 4.79 4.37 5.29 5.03 5.50 4.90 5.54 5.37 5.67 6.32 6.96 6.90 6.75 6.59 4.96 4.87 4.75 5.32 5.76 6.37 6.37 6.39 5.35 6.28 5.88
F1 ND ND 0.69 0.75 1.30 2.31 2.82 3.62 3.71 4.31 4.48 5.35 5.36 5.80 5.56 5.75 5.29 5.44 5.01 5.86 6.83 6.45 6.12 5.79 6.15 5.33 5.50 5.42 5.31 4.84 5.22 5.22 4.99 5.37 5.26
F2 ND ND 0.55 0.95 1.28 2.74 3.39 3.73 4.49 4.90 4.20 4.86 4.24 5.06 4.86 4.72 4.35 4.69 5.60 5.39 6.26 5.11 5.52 5.20 4.01 4.83 5.12 5.86 4.73 4.97 4.63 5.80 5.11 5.12 5.18
Group II: “fine” mine spoil soil (mine spoil + pre-mined soil)
F18–2 (Fert CL)‡ ND ND ND ND 2.37 ND 2.45 ND 2.61 1.98 1.90 ND 2.26 2.15 2.27 2.00 1.74 1.93 ND ND 2.33 ND 2.39 2.04 1.77 1.99 ND ND 1.91 ND 1.79 2.21 ND 2.22 2.24
F40 ND ND ND 1.94 ND 2.32 2.53 2.70 3.45 3.85 4.14 4.65 5.36 5.75 6.27 5.19 5.45 5.27 4.82 5.00 4.47 5.06 4.22 4.40 4.53 4.48 3.88 3.65 4.01 3.74 3.40 3.94 3.81 3.65 3.66
F44 ND ND ND 0.74 ND 0.77 1.14 1.76 2.76 4.20 4.57 4.49 4.99 5.67 5.11 5.58 4.76 4.37 5.20 4.75 4.61 3.98 4.35 4.54 4.56 3.77 3.96 3.68 3.67 3.26 3.70 3.30 3.62 4.26 3.97
F45 ND ND ND 0.89 ND 0.81 1.34 1.72 1.96 3.59 3.69 3.84 4.59 4.29 4.48 4.61 4.30 4.07 4.09 4.18 4.20 3.96 3.75 4.02 4.18 3.67 3.63 3.59 4.00 4.04 3.85 3.59 4.18 4.16 3.78
F42 ND ND ND 1.11 ND 1.34 1.95 2.33 3.20 3.82 4.19 4.36 5.13 4.84 5.34 4.89 5.38 4.83 3.91 5.01 4.94 4.21 4.61 3.63 4.29 3.71 3.83 3.97 3.65 3.88 3.50 4.04 4.58 3.95 3.96
F41 ND ND ND 1.12 ND 1.33 2.14 2.56 2.22 3.11 3.78 4.20 4.55 4.22 3.62 5.00 4.63 3.80 4.02 3.71 3.70 4.48 3.33 3.50 3.59 3.54 5.07 4.78 4.15 4.55 5.45 5.31 4.53 4.66 4.90
F43 ND ND ND 0.95 ND 1.67 2.08 2.51 3.50 4.01 4.18 4.14 4.31 5.25 5.27 5.15 4.78 4.16 3.95 4.44 4.25 4.22 3.93 3.90 3.92 3.52 4.52 4.61 3.91 4.13 4.38 3.96 4.07 5.09 4.11
F47 ND ND ND 0.80 ND 0.96 1.90 2.53 3.65 4.69 4.53 5.45 5.68 6.76 6.96 6.56 6.23 5.61 5.92 5.88 6.79 6.59 6.98 6.85 6.72 5.58 5.81 5.38 5.19 4.98 5.74 5.62 5.77 5.95 5.09
F9 ND 0.86 0.65 1.12 1.27 1.80 2.39 3.43 3.53 3.92 4.10 4.57 4.52 5.14 5.57 4.92 5.27 5.26 6.33 5.50 6.86 5.85 5.81 5.23 5.08 4.62 4.25 4.72 5.17 4.43 4.76 5.08 5.53 4.98 4.58
F17 ND 1.05 ND 1.24 1.13 1.62 3.14 4.42 4.92 5.63 5.08 6.11 6.03 6.01 6.94 6.45 6.74 6.29 6.02 7.04 6.54 6.61 6.86 5.48 5.70 5.64 5.83 5.43 5.71 5.94 6.17 5.32 6.50 5.76 5.57
Group III: nonmined soil
F18–2 (Fert CL) ND ND ND ND 2.37 ND 2.45 ND 2.61 1.98 1.90 ND 2.26 2.15 2.27 2.00 1.74 1.93 ND ND 2.33 ND 2.39 2.04 1.77 1.99 ND ND 1.91 ND 1.79 2.21 ND 2.22 2.24
F22 ND 1.19 1.23 1.01 1.24 1.96 2.60 3.76 4.20 4.30 4.78 5.75 4.76 5.49 5.05 5.73 4.91 5.00 4.36 4.75 4.33 4.40 4.41 4.31 4.36 4.16 3.75 3.94 3.34 3.47 3.47 3.29 3.18 3.03 2.93
F23 ND ND 1.06 ND 1.50 1.30 2.50 3.12 3.68 3.82 4.59 4.87 4.25 5.67 5.24 4.85 3.31 4.25 3.19 4.23 2.75 3.46 3.80 3.76 3.82 3.32 3.51 3.42 3.26 3.21 3.06 2.98 3.02 2.74 2.51
F20 ND ND 2.25 2.46 2.03 2.84 3.37 4.42 4.54 4.62 4.82 5.11 5.45 5.70 5.57 5.27 5.98 5.24 5.17 4.75 3.47 4.32 4.93 4.41 4.51 3.94 3.47 3.97 4.00 3.70 3.77 3.98 3.92 3.83 3.34
F31 ND ND 0.48 0.47 1.06 0.92 1.60 2.84 2.88 3.59 3.63 4.53 4.07 4.06 4.24 4.31 4.22 3.75 4.23 3.27 3.95 3.86 3.18 3.54 3.83 3.15 3.02 3.34 2.72 2.91 2.66 2.81 2.54 2.51 2.17
F34 ND ND 0.48 ND 1.12 1.09 2.51 2.83 2.97 3.91 4.01 3.92 5.11 5.26 5.44 4.60 4.54 4.09 4.40 4.28 4.08 3.72 3.63 3.77 3.82 3.52 3.12 3.14 3.06 2.90 2.91 2.71 2.68 2.73 2.54
F21 ND ND 1.00 1.35 1.36 1.45 2.64 3.64 4.04 4.76 4.30 4.78 4.61 4.86 4.85 4.86 4.09 3.86 4.06 3.98 3.91 3.62 3.49 3.60 3.37 2.93 2.99 3.03 2.46 3.25 2.90 2.75 3.27 2.93 2.29
F19 ND ND 1.47 1.37 1.27 1.77 2.45 3.15 3.32 4.35 3.82 4.82 4.67 4.80 5.14 4.48 4.38 3.73 3.52 3.79 2.62 3.65 3.60 3.58 3.62 2.87 3.36 3.18 2.62 2.90 2.63 2.63 3.13 2.80 2.17
F37 ND ND 0.60 0.52 0.94 1.09 1.78 2.24 1.80 3.36 3.56 4.18 4.73 4.03 4.65 4.09 4.12 3.76 3.10 3.66 4.34 4.55 4.23 4.59 4.41 4.05 3.90 3.73 3.56 3.78 3.62 3.86 3.78 3.16 2.87
F35 ND ND ND 0.78 0.96 1.44 2.38 2.78 2.54 3.90 3.93 3.68 4.39 4.81 4.75 4.89 4.53 4.28 3.99 3.81 4.72 5.30 5.27 5.01 5.30 4.71 4.36 4.57 4.16 3.93 3.98 4.36 3.70 3.49 3.49
F10 ND ND 0.47 1.08 1.26 2.45 3.34 3.95 4.11 4.73 5.59 5.58 6.11 5.93 6.00 5.29 5.66 5.52 5.71 5.41 5.28 5.77 6.42 6.04 5.76 6.18 5.96 5.73 5.41 5.56 5.26 5.65 4.91 4.53 4.68
F36 ND ND ND 0.54 1.11 1.52 2.35 2.50 3.21 3.45 3.36 4.56 4.04 4.58 4.64 5.05 4.83 4.15 3.97 4.10 4.28 4.66 4.76 4.76 5.11 4.23 4.25 3.75 3.71 3.75 3.85 4.26 4.08 3.68 3.49
F16 ND ND 0.66 1.19 1.61 2.11 2.79 3.21 3.93 4.84 4.36 5.64 5.44 5.06 5.15 5.34 5.55 5.04 5.72 5.17 4.94 4.85 4.77 4.62 4.21 3.93 3.94 3.94 3.53 3.94 3.42 3.78 3.76 3.75 3.25
ND = not determined.
Nonmined soil, but similar to Group II.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Soil carbon sequestration in fields of three groups after 34-yr land reclamation with biosolids at Fulton County, Illinois (listed from low to high rates of cumulative biosolids application in each group).

 
Field no. Initial surface soil layer C stock 2006 surface soil layer C stock Soil C gain Cum biosolids C applied‡ Biosolids C remaining Net soil C sequestration
Mg ha−1
Group I: mine spoil soil
F29 (Fert CL) 15.0 20.6 5.7 0.3 0 5.7
F32 16.2 106 90.1 148 40.4 49.8
F39 17.6 92.1 74.4 154 36.9 37.5
F25 27.5 117 89.7 172 17.5 72.2
F27 22.5 97.2 74.7 196 23.8 50.9
F28 15.9 111 95.0 216 25.6 69.5
F26 25.2 102 76.6 217 19.4 57.2
F13 8.2 142 133 231 48.0 85.5
F12 12.6 110 97.6 204 24.8 72.8
F33 13.8 145 131 246 48.3 82.5
F8 5.3 126 121 225 33.4 87.7
F30 12.8 108 95.7 257 31.8 63.9
F11 17.6 137 119 251 26.2 93.3
F14 16.2 131 115 229 48.5 66.6
F4 15.2 151 136 274 45.0 90.6
F15 18.6 128 109 268 51.8 57.2
F5 9.2 149 140 277 47.8 91.8
F7 7.7 108 100 263 42.0 57.8
F3 19.3 186 166 295 62.6 104
F1 16.7 170 154 305 56.7 97.1
F2 13.3 165 152 341 56.7 95.1
Group II: “fine” mine spoil soil (mine spoil + pre-mined soil)
F18–2 (Fert CL)† 42.1 39.6 −2.4 0.3 0 −2.4
F40 34.6 71.7 37.1 124 6.4 30.8
F44 14.3 90.2 75.9 190 40.4 35.5
F45 17.2 87.0 69.8 185 35.8 34.0
F42 21.5 88.5 67.0 189 25.1 41.9
F41 21.7 115 93.7 228 61.4 32.3
F43 18.4 99.1 80.7 228 52.5 28.2
F47 15.5 126 111 260 51.6 59.4
F9 16.6 135 118 240 40.3 77.8
F17 20.3 160 139 292 52.5 86.9
Group III: nonmined soil
F18–2 (Fert CL) 42.1 39.6 −2.4 0.3 0 −2.4
F22 23.0 63.8 40.8 104 5.0 35.8
F23 20.5 56.2 35.7 108 5.4 30.3
F20 38.8 66.8 28.0 131 6.4 21.5
F31 9.3 47.7 38.4 138 6.3 32.0
F34 9.3 57.0 47.7 130 6.5 41.2
F21 19.4 54.5 35.1 136 6.3 28.8
F19 28.4 53.2 24.8 132 6.6 18.2
F37 14.3 79.5 65.2 190 19.8 45.4
F35 18.1 102 84.0 229 35.7 48.3
F10 9.5 116 106 238 22.9 83.5
F36 13.0 101 87.6 249 35.3 52.3
F16 13.6 104 90.7 214 23.9 66.8
Nonmined soil, but similar to Group II.
Calculated assuming biosolids organic C = volatile solids/1.724.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Efficiency of soil carbon sequestration by biosolids application in different land reclamation fields as affected by field group (listed from low to high rates of cumulative biosolids application in each group).

 
Field no. Cumulative biosolids applied (72–84) Net soil C sequestration (1985) C sequestration efficiency
Mg ha−1 Net soil C sequestration/cumulative biosolids mass
Group I: mine spoil soil (MS)
F32 388 54.1 0.139
F39 442 24.6 0.056
F25 569 70.8 0.124
F27 616 38.7 0.063
F28 707 58.1 0.082
F26 704 29.8 0.042
F13 535 84.7 0.158
F12 642 54.0 0.084
F33 635 41.6 0.066
F8 485 59.1 0.122
F30 722 40.0 0.055
F11 662 64.2 0.097
F14 562 40.8 0.073
F4 634 69.9 0.110
F15 704 44.4 0.063
F5 556 32.3 0.058
F7 520 19.4 0.037
F3 496 57.4 0.116
F1 630 63.4 0.101
F2 662 54.5 0.082
Mean 0.086
Group II: “fine” Mine spoil soil (Mine spoil + pre-mined soil) (fMS)
F40 497 17.2 0.034
F44 579 33.8 0.058
F45 481 13.7 0.028
F42 622 10.5 0.017
F41 505 6.5 0.013
F43 577 25.5 0.044
F47 664 45.9 0.069
F9 466 37.6 0.081
F17 530 49.4 0.093
Mean 0.049
Group III: nonmined soil (NM)
F22 455 46.2 0.102
F23 473 45.9 0.097
F20 531 11.8 0.022
F31 557 15.4 0.028
F34 566 39.4 0.070
F21 618 27.5 0.045
F19 644 16.1 0.025
F37 564 23.3 0.041
F35 546 39.3 0.072
F10 615 54.3 0.088
F36 578 38.6 0.067
F16 639 42.8 0.067
Mean 0.060
Probability of t test
MS vs. fMS 0.006
MS vs. NM 0.024
fMS vs. NM NS