Phosphorus in China’s Intensive Vegetable Production Systems: Overfertilization, Soil Enrichment, and Environmental Implications
- Zhengjuan Yana,
- Pengpeng Liua,
- Yuhong Lia,
- Lin Maab,
- Ashok Alvac,
- Zhengxia Doud,
- Qing Chen *a and
- Fusuo Zhanga
- a College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural Univ., No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian, Beijing 100193, P.R. China,and Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, China Agricultural Univ., No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian, Beijing 100193, P. R. China
b Dep. of Soil Quality, Wageningen Univ., P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands
c USDA–ARS, Vegetable and Forage Crops Research Unit, 24106 N. Bunn Rd., Prosser, WA 99350
d Center for Animal Health and Productivity, Univ. of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, 382 West Street Rd., Kennett Square, PA 19348
China’s vegetable production has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Total production amounted to 522.7 million Mg (1 Mg = 106 g) in 2009, which was more than nine times that in 1980 and represented >50% of the world production. Meanwhile, excessive use of animal manures and chemical fertilizers in vegetable fields has brought various production and environmental challenges, including excessive accumulation of nutrients in soils and accelerated water pollution problems. In this study, we have evaluated the current status of phosphorus (P) in China’s intensive vegetable production systems based on data summarized from nearly 100 publications plus results from our recent experiments. Gross overfertilization occurred in greenhouse (571 kg P ha−1) and open-field (117 kg P ha−1) vegetable systems compared with P removal in harvested crops (44 and 25 kg P ha−1) per season. Excess P input led to soil enrichment of labile P, measured as Olsen-P, averaging 179 (greenhouses) and 100 mg P kg−1 (open fields) in the 0- to 20-cm soil depth, and in some cases led to P leaching, as evidenced by increases in Olsen-P and CaCl2–P at the 40- to 60-cm soil depth. The vast majority of vegetable soils had Olsen-P exceeding the critical level (46.0–58.0 mg P kg−1) for optimum vegetable yield. Innovative policies and strategies are urgently needed to implement science-based nutrient management practices to attain sustainable vegetable production while protecting natural and environmental resources.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
Copyright © 2013. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.