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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 40 No. 5, p. 1443-1449
     
    Received: May 21, 2010
    Published: Sept, 2011


    * Corresponding author(s): dong.wang@ars.usda.gov
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doi:10.2134/jeq2010.0233

Chloropicrin Emissions after Shank Injection: Two-Dimensional Analytical and Numerical Model Simulations of Different Source Methods and Field Measurements

  1. D. Wang *a,
  2. S. R. Yatesb and
  3. S. Gaoa
  1. a USDA–ARS, Water Management Research Unit, Parlier, CA 93648
    b USDA–ARS, U.S. Salinity Lab., Riverside, CA 92507. Assigned to Associate Editor Mingxin Guo

Abstract

Understanding the control mechanisms of fumigant movement in soil is a fundamental step for developing management strategies to reduce atmospheric emissions. Most soil fumigants including chloropicrin (CP) are applied by shank injection, and the application process often leaves vertical soil fractures that would potentially cause preferential fumigant movement and increased emissions. This potential transport pathway was evaluated by comparing cumulative emissions and soil air concentrations of CP from direct field measurements with those predicted using analytical and numerical models after assuming either point or rectangle sources for the injected CP. Results clearly showed that shank-injected CP, when treated as vertical rectangle sources, produced cumulative emission losses similar to the field measurements. Treating the shanked CP as point sources caused approximately 50% underprediction than the field measurements. The study also demonstrated that fumigant cumulative emissions can be predicted, with reasonable accuracy, using either analytical or numerical simulations.

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Copyright © 2011. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

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