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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 38 No. 2, p. 513-519
     
    Received: Mar 7, 2008
    Published: Mar, 2009


    * Corresponding author(s): mguo@desu.edu
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doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0124

Degradation of Methyl Iodide in Soil: Effects of Environmental Factors

  1. Mingxin Guo *a and
  2. Suduan Gaob
  1. a Dep. of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Delaware State Univ., Dover, DE 19901
    b USDA-ARS, Water Management Research Unit, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648

Abstract

Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr); however, there are concerns about its environmental fate following soil fumigation. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the rate of MeI degradation in soil. The chemical was added to soil at 48.6 mg kg−1 and incubated under different conditions. The MeI degradation rate in soil was determined by extracting and measuring residual concentrations over a 15 d incubation period. In soil, MeI degradation followed availability-adjusted first-order kinetics. At 20°C MeI had a calculated half-life of 32 d in a sandy loam containing 4.3 g kg−1 of organic carbon. It degraded more rapidly as temperature increased, exhibiting a half-life of 23 d at 30°C. Amendment with 10% cattle manure shortened the half-life to 4 d at 20°C. In both unamended and manure-amended soils, the half-life of MeI greatly increased as the organic matter (OM) was removed and it only slightly increased in soils that were sterilized, indicating predominance of chemical reactions in MeI degradation. Soil texture, mineralogy, and moderate moisture content had little influence on MeI degradation. The degradation slowed as the chemical application rate increased. The results suggest that environmental factors, especially soil temperature and organic amendments, should be considered in combination with the minimum effective MeI application rate for achieving satisfactory pest-control efficacy, reducing atmospheric volatilization, and minimizing groundwater contamination.

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Copyright © 2009. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyAmerican Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America