Using Surface Water Application to Reduce 1,3-Dichloropropene Emission from Soil Fumigation
- Suduan Gao *a and
- Thomas J. Troutb
High emissions from soil fumigants increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders, and the environment, and jeopardize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective approaches to minimize emissions are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface water application (or water seal) to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions from soil (Hanford sandy loam) columns. Treatments included dry soil (control), initial water application (8 mm of water just before fumigant application), initial plus a second water application (2.6 mm) at 12 h, initial plus two water applications (2.6 mm each time) at 12 and 24 h, standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp, initial water application plus HDPE tarp, and virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp. Emissions from the soil surface and distribution of 1,3-D in the soil-gas phase were monitored for 2 wk. Each water application abruptly reduced 1,3-D emission flux, which rebounded over a few hours. Peak emission rates were substantially reduced, but total emission reduction was small. Total fumigant emission was 51% of applied for the control, 46% for initial water application only, and 41% for the three intermittent water applications with the remaining water treatment intermediate. The HDPE tarp alone resulted in 45% emission, while initial water application plus HDPE tarp resulted in 38% emission. The most effective soil surface treatment was VIF tarp (10% emission). Surface water application can be as effective, and less expensive than, standard HDPE tarp. Frequent water application is required to substantially reduce emissions.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
Copyright © 2006.