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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 34 No. 6, p. 2072-2081
     
    Received: May 4, 2005
    Published: Nov, 2005


    * Corresponding author(s): anderson.1093@osu.edu
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doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0168

Temporal and Spatial Development of Surface Soil Conditions at Two Created Riverine Marshes

  1. Christopher J. Anderson *a,
  2. William J. Mitscha and
  3. Robert W. Nairnab
  1. a The Schiermeier Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, 352 West Dodridge Street, Columbus, OH 43202
    b Present address: School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, The University of Oklahoma, 202 West Boyd Street, Norman, OK 73019

Abstract

The amount of time it takes for created wetlands to develop soils comparable to natural wetlands is relatively unknown. Surface soil changes over time were evaluated in two created wetlands (approximately 1 ha each) at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park in Columbus, Ohio. The two wetlands were constructed in 1993 to be identical in size and geomorphology, and maintained to have the same hydrology. The only initial difference between the wetlands was that one was planted with native macrophytes while the other was not. In May 2004, soil samples were collected (10 yr and 2 mo after the wetlands were flooded) and compared to samples collected in 1993 (after the wetlands were excavated but before flooding) and 1995 (18 mo after the wetlands were flooded). In all three years, soils were split into surface (0–8 cm) and subsurface (8–16 cm) depths and analyzed for soil organic matter, total C, total P, available P, exchangeable cations, and pH. Soils in the two wetlands have changed substantially through sedimentation and organic accretion. Between 1993 and 1995, soils were most influenced by the deposition of senescent macroalgae, the mobilization of soluble nutrients, and the precipitation of CaCO3 Between 1995 and 2004, soil parameters were influenced more by the deposition of organic matter from colonized macrophyte communities. Mean percent organic matter at the surface increased from 5.3 ± 0.1% in 1993, 6.1 ± 0.2% in 1995, to 9.5 ± 0.2% in 2004. Mean total P increased from 493 ± 18 μg g−1 in 1993, 600 ± 23 μg g−1 in 1995, to 724 ± 20 μg g−1 in 2004. Spatial analyses of percent organic matter (a commonly used indicator of hydric soil condition) at both wetlands in 1993, 1995, and 2004 showed that soil conditions have become increasingly more variable. High spatial structure (autocorrelation) between data points was detected in 1993 and 2004, with data in 2004 exhibiting a much higher overall variance and narrower range of spatial structure than in 1993.

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Copyright © 2005. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyASA, CSSA, SSSA

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