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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 16 No. 2, p. 106-112
     
    Received: June 29, 1986
    Published: Apr, 1987


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doi:10.2134/jeq1987.00472425001600020003x

Swine Manure and Lagoon Effluent Applied to a Temperate Forage Mixture: II. Rainfall Runoff and Soil Chemical Properties1

  1. P. W. Westerman,
  2. Larry D. King,
  3. J. C. Burns,
  4. G. A. Cummings and
  5. M. R. Overcash2

Abstract

Abstract

Rates of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) waste used for crop production must be sufficient to supply adequate nutrients but must not pose a surface or groundwater pollution hazard. To determine acceptable rates, plots of predominantly tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L. Schreb) on a Cecil soil (Typic Hapludults) received no treatment (C); commercial fertilizer (F) at 201-34-65 kg N-P-K ha−1 yr−1, swine manure slurry (M) supplying 670 kg N ha−1 yr−1, or swine lagoon effluent (E) applied by sprinkler irrigation to supply 600 (E1) or 1200 (E2) kg N ha−1 yr−1 for 4 yr. The waste treatments, chosen to evaluate acceptable maximum application rates when land is limited, resulted in much higher applications of N, P, K, and other nutrients than are normally used for temperate species. Runoff from E2 had an annual mean concentration of 13 mg L−1 NO3-N but the low runoff volume resulted in mass transport of only about 10 kg NO3-N ha−1 yr−1. Concentration of P was significantly higher with E2 (9 mg L−1) and M (6 mg L−1) than with the other treatments. The runoff quality from E1 was not significantly different than that from F. Soil NO3-N concentrations to a depth of 200 cm showed significant differences in the order E2 = M > E1 > F = C. For E2, 49% of the applied N could not be accounted for by crop removal, increased soil NO3-N, or runoff. Mehlich 1 extractable P was greater with E2 than with the other treatments. Extractable soil K and Na were increased by E1 and E2 but treatments had little or no effect on extractable Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, or on total N, organic matter, or pH. Analysis of runoff and soil NO3-N data indicate that M, E2, and perhaps E1 supplied excess N. Consequently, surface and groundwater pollution hazards may be created by applying manure and effluent at the rates studied. Pollution by runoff was more likely when rainfall occurred soon after manure or fertilizer application.

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