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Description of test sites at Lethbridge and Bow Island (fallow and stubble), AB, Canada, and summary of agronomic practices performed during the study period 2007 to 2009.

 
Variable
Location Lethbridge, AB, Canada
Bow Island, AB, Canada
Latitude and longitude 49°41′ N, 112°45′ W 49°44′ N, 111°20′ W
Soil zone, series, and texture Dark Brown Chernozemic Lethbridge series clay loam Brown Chernozemic Chin seriessilty loam
Crop year 2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 2009
Sowing date 2 May 13 May 11 May 7 May 7 May 7 May
Harvest date 13 Aug. 16 Sept. 28 Aug. 8 Aug. 5 Sept. 3 Aug.
Soil NO3N 0–60 cm kg N ha−1 40.7 35.7 20.2 13.7s† 29.9f 3.4s‡ 18.9f 4.7s 42.4f
Precipitation (mm)
1 May to 15 September(Bow Island: long-term average = 210)(Lethbridge: long-term average = 251) 164 380 241 141 270 175
Annual(Bow Island: long-term average = 358)(Lethbridge: long-term average = 398) 342 525 417 254 398 303
s, stubble; f, chemical fallow.
Bold values were determined from the 0 to 15 cm profile.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Influence of sowing density and N rate on solid stem spring wheat (cv. AC Lillian) tolerance to wheat stem sawfly in rainfed environments in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones of southern Alberta, Canada, in 2007 to 2009.

 
Factor Treatment Stem solidness (pith expression)† Stem diameter (mm) Sawfly damage (% stems cut)
Seed rate, seeds m−2 100 3.03 2.53 24
300 2.66 2.30 33
500 2.50 2.18 36
SED‡ 0.05 0.03 3.52
Error df 16 16 16
p > F <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0111
Contrasts Linear <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0044
Quadratic 0.0353 0.0374 0.3016
Nitrogen rate, kg N ha−1 0 2.66 2.17 22
30 2.69 2.31 28
60 2.78 2.37 31
90 2.77 2.40 37
120 2.76 2.44 39
SED 0.08 0.06 4.60
Error df 32 32 32
p > F 0.4513 0.0035 0.0061
Contrasts Linear 0.1843 0.0113 0.0314
p > F Quadratic 0.8323 0.0923 0.4759
Cubic 0.6480 0.0184 0.0052
Quartic 0.2054 0.0409 0.0813
Seeding rate × fertilizer p > F 0.9408 0.2236 0.7325
Pith rating based on average of stem internodes (1, hollow; 5, solid).
SED, standard error of the difference between two means.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Response of solid stem spring wheat (cv. AC Lillian) yield components and grain protein concentration to sowing density and N rate in rainfed environments located in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones of southern Alberta, Canada, in 2007 to 2009.

 
Factor Treatment Yield at 14% m.c.† Stand establishment Spike density Seed mass Grain bulk density Grain protein
Mg ha−1 plants m−2 heads m−2 g 1000−1 kg hL−1 %
Seed rate, seeds m−2 100 2.74 86 293 31.2 70.3 14.2
300 3.01 212 449 29.8 70.6 13.9
500 3.00 310 502 29.1 71.1 13.7
SED‡ 0.11 8.7 18.5 0.35 1.0 0.12
Error df 16 16 16 16 16 16
p > F 0.0425 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.6089 0.0046
Contrasts, p > F Linear 0.0323 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.3268 0.0013
Quadratic 0.1528 0.0743 0.0057 0.3380 09820 0.5019
Nitrogen rate, kg N ha−1 0 2.47 194 345 30.8 71.0 12.6
30 2.82 199 401 30.2 70.2 12.8
60 3.01 208 431 29.8 70.6 13.8
90 3.16 209 455 29.8 71.3 14.9
120 3.14 204 443 29.4 70.1 15.4
SED 0.16 5.4 15.8 0.43 1.1 0.30
Error df 32 32 32 32 32 32
p > F 0.0006 0.0551 <0.0001 0.0329 0.7606 <0.0001
Contrasts, p > F Linear 0.0013 0.0085 <0.0001 0.1030 0.6801 0.0002
Quadratic 0.2160 0.7330 0.0804 0.1899 0.2271 0.9989
Cubic 0.0115 0.6209 0.0007 0.0635 0.7912 <0.0001
Quartic 0.0352 0.1504 0.0044 0.0635 0.9491 <0.0001
Seeding rate × fertilizer p > F 0.3900 0.1940 0.6579 0.7431 0.6773 0.9237
m.c., moisture content.
SED, standard error of the difference between two means.



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Response of solid stem spring wheat (cv. AC Lillian) to supplemental micronutrient blend applied in-crop at five times the recommended rate at the three-leaf stage and repeated at the six-leaf stage in southern Alberta, Canada, in 2008 to 2009.

 
Factor Treatment Yield at 14% m.c.†(Mg ha−1) Stem solidness(pith expression)‡ Sawfly damage(% stems cut) Grain protein (%)
Basal fertilizer, 90 kg N ha−1 Without micronutrient 3.66 2.85 36 13.6
Basal fertilizer, 90 kg N ha−1 With micronutrient 3.45 2.78 35 13.9
SED§ 0.14 0.07 5.59 0.32
Error df 25 25 25 25
p > F 0.1542 0.4464 0.8536 0.3787
m.c., moisture content.
Pith rating based on average of stem internodes (1, hollow; 5, solid).
§SED, standard error of the difference between two means.



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Correlation matrix relating stem diameter, stem solidness, and wheat stem sawfly damage to yield components, protein, and canopy reflectance data.

 
Pearson correlation coefficients
Stem solidness Sawfly damage Stand establishment Spike density Grain yield Grain protein NDVI† Plant chlorophyll
Stem diameter 0.49 –‡ −0.41 0.43 0.39 0.25 0.43
Stem solidness 1 −0.30 −0.51 −0.44
Sawfly damage 1 −0.30 0.40 −0.56
Stand establishment 1 0.72 0.29 0.48 0.56
Spike density 1 0.50 0.29 0.82 0.94
Grain yield 1 0.60 0.88
Grain protein 1 0.33
NDVI 1 0.96
Plant chlorophyll 1
NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index. NDVI and plant chlorophyll readings taken at Zadoks 31to 37 (Zadoks et al., 1974) and based on six and three site–years, respectively. All other correlation coefficients are based on means averaged over nine site–years.
“–” represents p > 0.05; all other r values presented at p ≤ 0.05.