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  1. Vol. 39 No. 5, p. 1507-1512
     
    Received: July 14, 1998
    Published: Sept, 1999


    * Corresponding author(s): d-marshall@tamu.edu
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doi:10.2135/cropsci1999.3951507x

Occurrence of Fungal Endophytes in Species of Wild Triticum

  1. D. Marshall *a,
  2. B. Tunalib and
  3. L.R. Nelsonc
  1. a Texas A&M University Research & Extension Center, 17360 Coit Rd., Dallas, TX 75252-6599 USA
    b Ankara Plant Protection Research Institute, 06172 Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey
    c Texas A&M University Research & Extension Center, P.O. Box E, Overton, TX 75684 USA

Abstract

Seedborne, nonpathogenic, fungal endophytes are commonly found in symbiotic relationships with many members of the cool-season grass subfamily Pooideae The beneficial effects on plants possessing fungal endophytes, and the detrimental effects on consumers of fungal endophyte-infected plants are widely known. The objective of our research was to determine if fungal endophytes exist in indigenous, wild Triticum (wheat) species from Turkey. From the Triticum species collected, we found two different fungal endophytes. Fungi identified morphologically as members of the genus Neotyphodium were found in the diploid Triticum species T. dichasians (Zhuk.) Bowden and T. tripsacoides (Jaub. & Spach) Bowden. The second endophyte, an Acremonium species, was found in T. columnare (Zhuk.) Morris & Sears, T. cylindricum Ces., T. monococcum L., T. neglecta Morris & Sears, T. recta Morris & Sears, T. triunciale (L.) Raspail, T. turgidum L. , and T. umbellulatum (Zhuk.) Bowden. No fungal endophytes were found in T. kotschyi (Boiss.) Bowden, T. ovatum (L.) Raspail, T. peregrinum Morris & Sears, T. speltoides (Tausch) Gren. ex Richter, and T. tauschii (Coss.) Schmal., although the number of samples tested was small for some of these species. Both Acremonium endophyte-infected and Acremonium endophyte-free plants of T. triunciale were found to occur at different frequencies at four collection sites on the Anatolian Plateau. Through two selfed generations of the plants, it was found that the Neotyphodium endophyte was transmitted to 100% of the progeny of T. dichasians and T. tripsacoides However, the Acremonium endophytes were not transmitted in all plants that originally possessed them. We concluded that fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Acremonium inhabit some wild wheat species grown indigenously in Turkey. These endophytes may influence the ecology and distribution of Triticum species, and may also serve as a source of biological control agents of pests or abiotic stress factors in wheat.

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Copyright © 1999. Crop Science Society of AmericaCrop Science Society of America