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  1. Vol. 17 No. 5, p. 777-782
     
    Received: Feb 14, 1977
    Published: Sept, 1977


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doi:10.2135/cropsci1977.0011183X001700050025x

Testa Comparisons of Four Peanut Cultivars1

  1. James A. Glueck,
  2. L. E. Clark and
  3. O. D. Smith2

Abstract

Abstract

Testa integrity and seed quality of four cultivars dried at two temperatures were compared on the basis of percentage sound split kernels. Multiple harvests compensated for differences in maturation rates. ‘New Mexico Valencia A’ had fewer sound split kernels than either ‘Starr’ or ‘Florunner’. Start and Florunner had a twofold increase in sound split kernels with extreme (approximately 49 C) compared to recommended (35 C maximum) drying temperatures. The increase in sound split kernels in New Mexico Valencia ‘A’ was nonsignificant. ‘NCFLA 14’ was similar to New Mexico Valencia ‘A’ with recommended drying, but had a significantly higher percentage of sound split kernels with extreme drying. Genetic improvements through breeding should be possible in both subspecies fastigiata and hypogaea of Arachis hypogaea L. Examination of testae by light and electron microscopy revealed that testa thickness, appearance, and structure varied with cultivar, maturity, and area of seed examined. Testae of mature New Mexico Valencia ‘A’ seed were, in general, less compacted and more flexible than those of Starr and Florunner. When dried at 49 C, New Mexico Valencia ‘A’ testae lost some flexibility but did not become brittle like Starr. The middle parenchyma cells of Starr testae appeared crushed and compressed against the thick-walled inner parenchyma cell layer. Thin inner parenchyma, non-compact middle parenchyma and relatively thick-walled outer sclerenchyma cell layers seemed to be primary factors related to maintenance of testa integrity. Testae of mature seed of Florunner and NC-FLA 14 were similar to Starr and New Mexico Valencia ‘A’, respectively.

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