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Agronomy Journal : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in crops, soils, and agronomy. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at www.agronomy.org/publications/aj, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Zhu, Q., M.J. Schlossberg, R.B. Bryant, and J.P. Schmidt. 2012. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0157

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Current issue: Agron. J. 107(3)



  • AGRONOMIC APPLICATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Guicheng Song, Chenliang Jiang, Xiaoyang Ge, Quanzhan Chen and Canming Tang
      Pollen Thermotolerance of Upland Cotton Related to Anther Structure and HSP Expression

      High temperature stress influences pollen grains development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) anthers, resulting in anthers with an abnormal structure and pollen grains with a low germination rate. To examine the thermotolerance mechanisms of pollen grains in upland cotton, we observed pollen germination rates, pollen grain ultrastructure, anther structure, and the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes in pollen grains after the plants were continuously exposed to high temperatures (36/30°C) in a phytotron for 8 h every day over a period of 10 d. After the high-temperature treatment, the pollen germination percentage of the heat-sensitive cultivar was reduced compared with the heat-tolerant cultivar, and the structure of indehiscent anthers and the ultrastructure of pollen grains in the heat-sensitive cultivar were more abnormal than that in the heat-tolerant cultivar. There were more abnormal mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuoles as well as fewer starch granules in the pollen grains of the heat-sensitive cultivar compared with the heat-tolerant cultivar. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0458
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • AGRONOMY, SOILS & ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    • Shujie Miao, Keqin Zhou, Yueyu Sui, Xingyi Zhang and Xiaobing Liu
      Impact of Eight-Year Topsoil Removal and Soil Amendments on Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission in an Eroded Chinese Mollisols

      Soil erosion is a serious environmental issue. Information in the severity of soil erosion on CO2 emission is limited. A soil erosion simulation experiment was used to examine the influence of topsoil removal and cattle manure amendment on soil CO2 emission for a cultivated Mollisols in Northeast China. Soil CO2 flux was determined during corn (Zea mays L.) growing season. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0515
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • CLIMATOLOGY & WATER MANAGEMENT

    • Dariusz P. Malinowski and William E. Pinchak
      Summer Dormancy Trait as a Strategy to Provide Perennial Cool-Season Grass Forage Alternatives in Southern Latitude Environments Affected by Climate Change

      Climate change and extreme weather events are affecting agriculture, water supplies, ecosystems, energy use, and the socio–economic system in the southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States and other semiarid regions of the world. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the crops with the ability to compensate for these weather extremes. Wheat is often managed as a dual-use crop in the SGP, providing winter forage for cattle and grain. In the 1970s and 1980s, introduced cool-season perennial grasses were an important source of high quality forage to complement dual-use wheat and perennial native and introduced warm-season grass pastures. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0628
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • CROP ECONOMICS, PRODUCTION & MANAGEMENT

    • M. Baseggio, Y. C. Newman, L. E. Sollenberger, C. Fraisse and T. Obreza
      Stolon Planting Rate Effects on Tifton 85 Bermudagrass Establishment

      Cultivar Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is often propagated using stolons, but the planting rate required for successful establishment varies under different soil conditions and on-farm irrigation management. In the sandy soils of the U.S. Gulf Coast, desiccation of planting material can occur rapidly even under irrigated conditions due to variable on-farm irrigation management, and few studies have evaluated stolon planting rate effects under these conditions. The objective was to assess the effect of stolon planting densities on establishment of Tifton 85. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0188
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • PEST INTERACTIONS IN AGRONOMIC SYSTEMS

    • Thomas Björkman, Carolyn Lowry, Joseph W. Shail, Daniel C. Brainard, Daniel S. Anderson and John B. Masiunas
      Mustard Cover Crops for Biomass Production and Weed Suppression in the Great Lakes Region

      Short-season cover cropping can be an important weed management tool. To optimize the use of mustard [Sinapis alba L. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] in the Great Lakes region, we assessed planting time effects, mustard biomass production, and weed suppression during mustard growth and after incorporation. The study was conducted in Illinois, Michigan, and New York for spring and fall from 2010 to 2012. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0461
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • REVIEW & INTERPRETATION

    • Jerry L. Hatfield and Charles L. Walthall
      Meeting Global Food Needs: Realizing the Potential via Genetics × Environment × Management Interactions

      Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed the 9 billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the world and a decreasing land resource base in extent and quality. There are many challenges to be faced; however, focusing on the interactions of genetics × environment × management (G × E × M) offers the potential to feed the 9 billion. Understanding and quantifying yield gaps offer a framework to assess the progress, and the challenge will be to determine the most effective and efficient way of closing the yield gap by using water and nutrients more efficiently. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj15.0076
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • SOIL FERTILITY & CROP NUTRITION

    • Péter Kovács, George E. Van Scoyoc, Thomas A. Doerge, James J. Camberato and Tony J. Vyn
      Anhydrous Ammonia Timing and Rate Effects on Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiencies

      Current guidance and equipment technologies permit anhydrous ammonia (NH3) to be confidently placed parallel to crop rows in both before- and after-planting situations at shallower depths than traditional applications. Field studies from 2010 to 2012 investigated the effects of pre-plant vs. side-dress NH3 at four N rates (0, 90, 145, and 202 kg N ha–1) on maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield (GY), N recovery efficiency (NRE), and N use efficiency (NUE). All NH3 was injected to a 12-cm depth; pre-plant NH3 was banded parallel to, but approximately 15 cm offset from, intended rows a few days before planting. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0350
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • SOIL TILLAGE, CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT

    • Edwin L. Ritchey, Donald D. Tyler, Michael E. Essington, Michael D. Mullen and Arnold M. Saxton
      Nitrogen Rate, Cover Crop, and Tillage Practice Alter Soil Chemical Properties

      Long-term management practices can influence many physical and chemical soil properties. This study investigated the influence of 14 yr of continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management systems on soil pH, soil organic C (SOC), and exchangeable cations. Management practices consisted of varying N rate, tillage (no-tillage [NT] or disk tillage [DT]), and cover crop on a Lexington silt loam soil (Ultic Hapludalf) in the absence of lime additions. Lower soil pH was present in NT, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) cover treatments and with increasing N rate but similar between 0- to 7.5- and 0- to 15-cm sample depths. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0226
      Published: April 24, 2015



    • William B. Stevens, Robert G. Evans, William M. Iversen, Jalal D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju and Brett L. Allen
      Strip Tillage and High-Efficiency Irrigation Applied to a Sugarbeet–Barley Rotation

      Strip tillage (ST) and high-efficiency overhead irrigation methods reduce fuel and water inputs compared to conventional practices, but have not been extensively evaluated in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)–malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping systems. A field study comparing conventional tillage (CT) and ST systems and two sprinkler irrigation methods (mid-elevation spray application, MESA; low-energy precision application, LEPA) was conducted near Sidney, MT, from 2004 to 2008. Strip tillage was performed (for sugarbeet only) using a single operation that left alternating 30-cm wide strips of tilled and untilled soil while fertilizer was simultaneously banded 10 cm below the seed row. Conventional tillage for sugarbeet consisted of six separate tillage operations following a broadcast application of fertilizer. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0525
      Published: April 17, 2015



  • SYMPOSIUM: STATISTICAL CONCEPTS

    • Barry Glaz, Jochum Wiersma, Jose A. Hernandez, Nicolas F. Martin and Kathleen M. Yeater
      Introduction to the Statistical Concepts Symposium Section: Selected Review Topics to Improve Our Understanding and Use of Statistics

      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0888
      Published: February 27, 2015
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  • SYMPOSIUM: WATER SECURITY TASK FORCE

    • Neil C. Hansen
      Blue Water Demand for Sustainable Intensification

      The agricultural challenge of meeting global food demand requires an increase in the level of agricultural water productivity and some increases in global water use. But many arid or semiarid agricultural regions of the world are facing declining water availability for irrigation. Examples of declining groundwater availability are seen throughout arid and semiarid areas of North America, Africa, and Asia. Relevant to water demand for sustainable intensification of agriculture, this paper touches on concepts where policy can work toward improving water productivity, including: (i) assessing crop water use and productivity, (ii) promoting cultural practices for increasing crop water productivity, (iii) improving efficiency of green water use, and (iv) protecting agricultural water supplies. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0138
      Published: August 22, 2014



    • John C. Peck
      Legal Challenges in Government Imposition of Water Conservation: The Kansas Example

      This article deals with legal challenges in conserving water in the United States, using Kansas as an example. The focus is on one aspect of American water allocation law—the extent to which a state can force reductions in pumping by holders of water rights. It explains the hybrid nature of water rights, which on the one hand are “real property rights,” and yet on the other hand they are viewed as rights only to use water and not to own the water itself. Because they are a kind of property right, they are protected by the fifth amendment to the U.S. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0058
      Published: August 8, 2014



    • Claudia Ringler and Tingju Zhu
      Water Resources and Food Security

      Agricultural water use includes a continuum from purely rainfed to fully irrigated systems. Growing pressures on limited water supplies from domestic, industrial, and environmental uses will likely lead to a decline in water availability for food production. Similarly, income growth and urbanization lead to dietary shifts that require more water resources per calorie consumed, putting further pressures on water supplies. As a result, semiarid and arid countries continue to increase net imports of food. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0256
      Published: July 18, 2014



    • B. A. Stewart and G. A. Peterson
      Managing Green Water in Dryland Agriculture

      Green water is the portion of precipitation that is stored in the soil, or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation during the growing season. Eventually, part of it is used by plants as transpiration and the amount of water transpired is directly related to biomass production. For grain crops, a portion of the biomass is grain, and the ratio of grain to biomass is the harvest index. The portion of precipitation that becomes green water generally increases with increasing precipitation. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0038
      Published: June 20, 2014



    • Jerry L. Hatfield
      Environmental Impact of Water Use in Agriculture

      Agriculture is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and the use of water in agricultural production is necessary to feed the world’s population and provide ecosystem services. As the population increases there is more concern about the potential role of agriculture on environmental quality and the role water management has on environmental quality. Water use by agricultural systems through evapotranspiration effects both the plant and the surrounding microclimate and the modification of the microclimate is a major environmental impact from agricultural water use. Sources of water for agriculture are from direct use of precipitation and indirect through irrigation from either surface or groundwater resources. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0064
      Published: May 23, 2014



    • Lois Wright Morton
      Achieving Water Security in Agriculture: The Human Factor

      It is widely recognized that achieving water security will take substantive investments in hydrology, engineering, soil science, agronomy, and a wide variety of physical and natural sciences and technologies. Less understood is the human aspect, the social science of beliefs, values, human perceptions and decision-making, social relationships, and social organization that intentionally and unintentionally construct, destroy, and reconstruct the water and land resources to which society is intimately linked. Addressing the complex issues of water security will require humans to acknowledge the threats to security and a willingness to give priority to assuring water quality, water availability, and water access to meet the needs of a growing world population and their economic engines. Soil–water–vegetation–climate–human relationships are central to maintaining and repairing the hydrological cycle necessary for fresh, safe, and abundant water supply. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/agronj14.0039
      Published: May 23, 2014



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