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Planting year, measurement year, species planted, accession planted for each species, and plant age at measurement for each plot examined over the 2-yr study period at Kellogg Biological Station in southwest Michigan. Perennial accessions are indicated with italics.

 
Planting year Measurement year Species Accession Plant age at measurement
2009 2009 annual wheat Frankenmuth 1
2009 annual wheat Pioneer 25R37 1
2009 perennial wheat P3 1
2009 perennial wheat P11 1
2009 perennial wheat P15 1
2009 perennial wheat P19 1
2009 annual rye Wheeler 1
2009 perennial rye Rival 1
2010 perennial wheat P3 2
2010 perennial wheat P11 2
2010 perennial wheat P15 2
2010 perennial wheat P19 2
2010 perennial rye Rival 2
2010 2010 annual wheat Frankenmuth 1
2010 annual wheat Pioneer 25R37 1
2010 perennial wheat P3 1
2010 perennial wheat P11 1
2010 perennial wheat P15 1
2010 perennial wheat P19 1
2010 annual rye Wheeler 1
2010 perennial rye Rival 1



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Dates for field operations over the 2-yr study period at Kellogg Biological Station, southwest Michigan.

 
Field operation 2009 2010
Tilled 13 Oct. 2008 7 Oct. 2009
Fertilized 22 Oct. 2008 20 Oct. 2009
Soil finished 24 Oct. 2008 19 Oct. 2009
Planted 25 Oct. 2008 9 Nov. 2009
Irrigation 3 Aug. 2009 5 Sept. 2010
Weeding 1 15–20 May 2009 1–5 May 2010
Weeding 2 7–14 June 2009 1–7 June 2010
Weeding 3 29 June–7 July 2009 25 June–2 July 2010
Weeding 4 30 Aug.–5 Sept. 2009 28 Aug.–1 Sept. 2010
Postharvest tillage 7 Oct. 2009 23 Oct. 2010



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Analysis of variance results for emergence, flowering date, early season height, flowering height, and the percent of perennial plants that exhibited regrowth (PSCR). One-year-old (1 yr) plants of each accession, where results were repeated over time (2009 and 2010) in a field experiment conducted at Kellogg Biological Station, southwest Michigan. Perennial accessions are indicated with italics.

 
Emergence
Flowering date
Early season height
Flowering height
Regrowth
Accession 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010
stems m−1 day of year cm %
Pioneer 25R37 wheat 59.1 40.5 157.6 157.9 7.9 8.0 49.5 67.3
Frankenmuth wheat 76.0 56.5 153.4 151.2 6.7 7.5 66.9 86.9
P3 wheat 31.2 12.6 179.8 169.2 7.8 6.3 80.7 93.3 53.6 0.0
P11 wheat 38.0 13.9 180.2 171.2 6.9 6.5 72.3 84.9 84.7 1.4
P15 wheat 31.9 11.4 182.0 170.6 7.7 6.2 71.9 91.1 80.9 4.0
P19 wheat 34.5 15.1 184.4 168.4 7.0 5.5 73.5 90.4 104.8 0.9
Wheeler rye 33.8 32.0 150.4 151.8 7.5 10.1 143.5 163.5
Rival rye 56.4 9.4c 162.2 162.4 5.9 7.4 142.0 142.9 116.1 0.9
LSD 11.2 15.3 2.2 2.4 2.3 1.4 9.1 8.85 23.4 11.7
ANOVA results†
–Accession 23.95*** 254.28*** 3.06** 230.68*** 2.05
–Year 65.39** 143.77*** 0.01 103.51*** 80.65***
–Accession × year 1.30 22.54*** 2.71* 2.47* 2.26
*Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.05.
**Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.01.
***Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.001.
F values are presented for each independent variable and interaction term.



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Analysis of variance results for threshed yield, threshability, number of tillers per linear meter, kernels per tiller, kernel mass, vegetative biomass, and harvest index of each accession averaged over 2009 and 2010 at Kellogg Biological Station, southwest Michigan. Means are reported along with LSDs. Perennial accessions are indicated with italics.

 
Accession Threshed yield Threshability Tiller no. Kernel no. Kernel mass Biomass Harvest index
Mg ha−1 % tillers m−2 no. tiller−1 mg Mg ha−1 %
Pioneer 25R37 wheat 2.41 83.8 60.1 21.4 36.7 4.43 54.4
Frankenmuth wheat 2.94 85.6 57.4 30.5 32.8 6.07 48.5
P3 wheat 0.99 67.0 43.8 18.9 24.6 3.94 26.6
P11 wheat 1.34 71.7 42.1 26.5 23.3 3.44 39.0
P15 wheat 1.36 69.2 40.9 30.1 22.1 4.40 16.8
P19 wheat 1.46 75.4 44.4 29.6 22.3 4.29 18.4
Wheeler rye 1.83 85.2 40.7 21.8 34.0 5.17 18.7
Rival rye 1.33 68.1 51.8 27.3 26.4 5.02 14.3
LSD 0.28 0.1 11.4 4.8 2.1 0.87 4.3
ANOVA results†
–Accession 31.12*** 15.19*** 3.88** 5.72*** 113.6*** 6.99*** 41.89***
–Year 1.65 2.08 18.62* 111.5*** 6.98 10.33*
–Accession × year 2.25* 3.15** 2.38* 18.09*** 3.30** 1.85
*Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.05.
**Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.01.
***Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.001.
F values are presented for each independent variable and interaction term.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Analysis of variance results for threshed yield, number of tillers per linear meter, kernels per tiller, vegetative biomass, and harvest index for 1- and 2-yr-old plants. Perennial accessions were grown in 2009 and 2010 at Kellogg Biological Station, southwest Michigan. Means are reported along with LSDs. Perennial accessions are indicated with italics.

 
Threshed yield
Tiller no.
Kernel no.
Biomass
Harvest index
Accession 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr
Mg ha−1 tillers m−1 no. tiller−1 Mg ha−1 %
P3 wheat 0.91 1.29 32.4 43.4 22.8 26.8 4.29 4.33 0.30 0.23
P11 wheat 1.38 1.35 41.4 36.6 31.1 34.6 4.29 3.70 0.31 0.37
P15 wheat 1.63 1.44 42.2 35.8 36.5 37.3 4.40 5.75 0.33 0.28
P19 wheat 1.67 1.76 44.8 41.6 32.4 41.7 4.88 5.31 0.36 0.32
Rival rye 1.29 1.44 37.6 58.4 28.0 24.3 6.33 4.76 0.23 0.27
LSD 0.36 0.52 10.8 15.3 6.5 7.7 1.20 1.83 0.04 0.09
ANOVA results†
–Accession 5.08** 1.82 12.00*** 3.08* 13.07***
–Plant age 0.23 0.50 3.40 0.01 1.58
–Plant age × accession 1.66 3.66* 2.01 2.14 6.42***
*Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.05.
**Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.01.
***Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.001.
F values are presented for each independent variable and interaction term.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Analysis of variance results presented for emergence, flowering date, early season height, flowering height, and the percent of perennial plants that regrew (PSCR). Fall for 1- and 2-yr-old plants of perennial accessions. These were sampled over 2009 and 2010 at Kellogg Biological Station, southwest Michigan. Means are reported along with LSDs. Perennial accessions are indicated with italics.

 
Emergence
Flowering date
Early season height
Flowering height
Regrowth
Accession 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr 1 yr 2 yr
stems m−1 day of year cm %
P3 wheat 12.6 12.9 169.2 179.8 6.3 11.9 93.3 103.1 0.0 0.7
P11 wheat 13.9 14.3 171.2 180.2 6.5 13.3 84.9 80.1 1.4 1.2
P15 wheat 11.4 12.9 170.6 182.0 6.2 12.1 91.1 91.8 4.0 1.0
P19 wheat 15.1 11.7 168.4 184.4 5.5 12.1 90.4 97.0 0.9 1.1
Rival rye 11.4 16.3 162.4 162.0 7.4 18.1 142.9 179.7 0.9 0.8
LSD 15.3 4.1 4.2 4.0 2.3 3.1 8.9 11.7 7.7 11.5
ANOVA results†
–Accession 3.08** 14.69*** 6.65** 151.00*** 1.46
–Age 0.86 33.62** 61.57*** 18.01* 0.01
–Age × accession 1.46 1.79 2.61‡ 9.66*** 0.97
*Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ≤ 0.05.
**Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ?≤ 0.01.
***Denotes that treatment effects are significant at p ?≤ 0.001.
F values are presented for each independent variable and interaction term.
Denotes that treatment effects are marginally significant at P ?≤ 0.06.