View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Average monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation during 3 yr and long-term averages† for Lacombe, AB.

 
Mean temperature
Precipitation
Month 2005 2006 2007 Long term 2005 2006 2007 Long term
°C mm
May 10.3 11.3 9.7 9.8 23 52 111 50
June 12.8 15.3 14.9 13.6 123 81 179 81
July 15.6 17.6 19.3 16.1 50 95 55 79
August 13.1 14.8 13.5 14.9 110 95 90 65
September 8.8 11.4 9.6 10.1 60 83 41 41
Total 366 406 476 316
Average of 100 yr of data.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Julian heading and harvest dates, durations from planting to heading (vegetative), heading to harvest (filling) and planting to harvest in days, and growing degree days > 0.0°C for two barley, an oat, and triticale cultivar planted at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed from 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Heading date Harvest date Period from planting to harvest
Cultivar Species Vegetative Filling Harvest Vegetative Filling Harvest
Julian d Growing degree days > 0.0°C
A.C. Lacombe Barley 206 220 54.5 13.7 68 855 213 1068
Vivar Barley 207 220 55.6 12.6 68 871 197 1068
A.C. Murphy Oat 213 231 61.0 18.9 80 966 262 1229
Wapiti Triticale 206 240 54.5 34.2 89 857 486 1433
LSD (0.05)† 3.7 3.7 3.7 1.6 4 58 41 73
Source Probability of significance‡
Planting delay (PD) *** *** *** * *** *** ns§ ns
Treatment (TR) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
PD × TR ns *** ** *** *** ** *** ***
PD × PD ns *** *** ns *** *** ns ***
PD × PD × TR * *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
*P ≤ 0.05.
**P ≤ 0.01.
***P ≤ 0.001.
LSD is the difference (P ≤ 0.05) between two means within each column.
F test.
§ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Coefficients for intercept, linear, and quadratic terms of trends over planting dates for Julian heading and harvest dates for two barley, an oat, and a triticale cultivar at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed after 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Coefficients and Significance levels
Cultivar Species Intercept P Linear P Quadratic P
Fig. 3a–Heading date (Julian)
A.C. Lacombe barley 190.1 *** 0.72 *** 0.002 ns†
Vivar barley 191.0 *** 0.84 *** –0.002 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 198.6 *** 0.49 *** 0.011 ***
Wapiti triticale 188.4 *** 0.87 *** –0.001 ns
SE‡ 3.1 0.09 0.0017
Fig. 3b (° C)–Harvest date (Julian)
A.C. Lacombe barley 206 *** 0.53 *** 0.006 ***
Vivar barley 206 *** 0.53 *** 0.006 ***
A.C. Murphy oat 210 *** 0.98 *** 0.002 ns
Wapiti triticale 215 *** 1.28 *** –0.003 ns
SE 3.7 0.07 0.0015
***Intercept or coefficient significant at P ≤ 0.001.
ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.
SE, is standard error for intercept and coefficients.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Coefficients for intercept, linear, and quadratic terms of trends over planting dates for vegetative† and filling† and from planting until harvest periods† in units of days and growing degree days (GDD‡) for two barley, an oat, and a triticale cultivar at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed after 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Coefficients and significance levels
Cultivar Species Intercept P Linear P Quadratic P
Fig. 4a–Vegetative period, d
A.C. Lacombe barley 59.4 *** –0.27 * 0.0018 ns§
Vivar barley 59.9 *** –0.16 ns –0.0023 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 66.9 *** –0.50 ** 0.0105 **
Wapiti triticale 57.8 *** –0.12 ns –0.0014 ns
SE¶ 2.7 0.09 0.0018
Fig. 4b–Filling period, d
A.C. Lacombe barley 16.0 * –0.20 ns –0.009 ns
Vivar barley 15.6 * –0.31 * 0.009 **
A.C. Murphy oat 12.5 * 0.50 ** –0.048 **
Wapiti triticale 26.3 * 0.41 ** –0.140 ns
SE 2.4 0.12 0.0022
Fig. 4c–Planting to harvest, d
A.C. Lacombe barley 75.5 *** –0.470 *** 0.006 ***
Vivar barley 75.6 *** –0.490 *** 0.006 ***
A.C. Murphy oat 79.4 *** –0.008 ns 0.001 ns
Wapiti triticale 84.0 *** 0.290 *** –0.003 ns
SE 3.1 0.069 0.0015
Fig. 4d–Vegetative period, GDD
A.C. Lacombe barley 820 *** 2.88 * –0.058 *
Vivar barley 830 *** 4.03 ** –0.098 ***
A.C. Murphy oat 957 *** –0.29 ns 0.037 ns
Wapiti triticale 800 *** 5.09 ** –0.112 **
SE 37.7 1.22 0.028
Fig. 4e–Filling period, GDD
A.C. Lacombe barley 287 *** –4.94 *** 0.067 *
Vivar barley 277 *** –6.10 *** 0.107 ***
A.C. Murphy oat 229 *** 3.38 * –0.085 ***
Wapiti triticale 452 *** 2.24 ns –0.028 ns
SE 24 1.22 0.28
Fig. 4f–Planting to harvest, GDD
A.C. Lacombe barley 1108 *** –2.06 ns 0.009 ns
Vivar barley 1110 *** –2.45 ns 0.009 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 1186 *** 3.08 * –0.048 *
Wapiti triticale 1252 *** 7.33 *** –0.140 ***
SE 24 1.03 0.0183
*P ≤ 0.05.
**P ≤ 0.01.
***P ≤ 0.001.
Vegetative, planting to heads emerged; filling, from heads emerged to late milk for oat and medium dough for other species; planting until harvest is vegetative plus filling.
GDD is accumulated growing degree days >0.0°C.
§ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.
SE is standard error for intercept and coefficients.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Protein, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD), starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall digestibility (CWD) and acid (ADF) detergent fiber concentrations for two barley, an oat and a triticale cultivar at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed after 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Cultivar Species Protein IVTD Starch NDF CWD ADF TDN†
g kg−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 119 697 147 509 395 304 653
Vivar barley 110 726 162 473 415 277 689
A.C. Murphy oat 110 637 95 571 366 375 562
Wapiti triticale 103 721 120 472 404 310 647
LSD (0.05)‡ 10.4 26.7 ns‡ 27.6 35.2 27.0 35.2
Probability of significance§
Source
Planting delay (PD) ns¶ ns * *** *** * ns
Treatment (TR) *** *** ns *** *** *** ***
PD × TR ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
PD × PD ns ns *** *** *** *** ***
PD × PD × TR ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
*P ≤ 0.05.
***P ≤ 0.001.
TDN, total digestible nutrients.
LSD is the difference (P ≤ 0.05) between two means within each column.
§F test.
ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Coefficients for intercept, linear and quadratic terms of trends over planting dates of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and cell wall digestibility (CWD), acid detergent fiber (ADF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and estimated carrying capacity for two barley, an oat, and a triticale cultivar at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed after 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Coefficients and Significance levels
Cultivar Species Intercept P Linear P Quadratic P
Fig. 5a–Starch, g kg−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 111.0 * 3.79 * –0.098 ***
Vivar barley 161.8 *** 1.05 ns† –0.048 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 84.5 ns 1.69 ns –0.056 ns
Wapiti triticale 98.5 * 2.07 ns –0.051 ns
SE‡ 33.8 1.59 0.034
Fig. 5b–NDF, g kg−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 532 *** –1.966 * 0.04 ns
Vivar barley 484 *** –1.228 ns 0.03 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 574 *** –1.066 ns 0.04 *
Wapiti triticale 488 *** –1.528 ns 0.03 ns
SE 20 0.931 0.021
Fig. 5c–CWD, g kg−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 467 *** −0.95 *** 0.168 ***
Vivar barley 423 *** –1.90 ns 0.007 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 399 *** –3.40 * 0.087 *
Wapiti triticale 406 *** –0.67 ns 0.028 ns
SE 21 1.76 0.040
Fig. 5d–ADF, g kg−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 318 *** –0.93 ns 0.01 ns
Vivar barley 280 *** –0.48 ns 0.02 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 374 *** –0.69 ns 0.03 *
Wapiti triticale 321 *** –1.15 ns 0.03 ns
SE 24 0.74 0.017
Fig. 5e–TDN, g kg−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 636 *** 1.21 ns –0.02 ns
Vivar barley 685 *** 0.62 ns –0.02 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 562 *** 0.90 ns –0.04 *
Wapiti triticale 632 *** 1.50 ns –0.04 ns
SE 31 0.97 0.022
*P ≤ 0.05.
***P ≤ 0.001.
ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.
SE is standard error for intercept and coefficients within columns.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Whole-plant dry matter (DM) yield, height, leaf area index (LAI)†, and estimated carrying capacity‡ for two barley, an oat, and a triticale cultivar at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed after 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Cultivar Species DM Yield Height LAI Carrying capacity
Mg ha−1 cm Cow-d ha−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 7.83 77.8 3.2 666
Vivar barley 8.06 74.1 3.3 733
A.C. Murphy oat 9.86 118.6 3.7 656
Wapiti triticale 11.25 102.0 2.8 935
LSD (0.05)§ 1.60 12.3 0.61 99.6
Source Probability of significance¶
Planting delay (PD) ns# ns ns ns
Treatment (TR) ns *** * ***
PD × TR *** ns ns ***
PD × PD *** ns ns ***
PD × PD × TR *** ns ns ***
*P ≤ 0.05.
***P ≤ 0.001.
Leaf area indices and canopy height measurements taken after heading date.
Carrying capacity is estimated based on yield, nutritive value and minimum requirements (National Research Council, 1996) of a 680-kg nonlactating cow at 221 d of pregnancy and temperatures <15°C.
§LSD is the difference (P ≤ 0.05) between two means within each column.
F test.
#ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Coefficients for intercept, linear and quadratic terms of trends over planting dates of whole-plant dry matter yield and estimated carrying capacity† for two barley, an oat, and a triticale cultivar at seven weekly intervals as planting was delayed after 10 to 12 May for 3 yr at Lacombe, AB.

 
Coefficients and significance levels
Cultivar Species Intercept P Linear P Quadratic P
Fig. 6a–Dry matter yield, Mg ha−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 9.5 *** –0.08 * <0.001 ns‡
Vivar barley 9.7 *** –0.09 ** <0.001 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 9.2 *** 0.07 * –0.002 ***
Wapiti triticale 10.1 *** 0.10 ** –0.003 ***
SE§ 0.65 0.03 0.0007
Fig. 6b–Carrying capacity, cow-d ha−1
A.C. Lacombe barley 785 *** –5.10 * –0.027 ns
Vivar barley 822 *** –7.91 *** 0.038 ns
A.C. Murphy oat 618 *** –6.03 ns –0.202 ***
Wapiti triticale 806 *** 12.33 *** –0.295 ***
SE 62 2.6 0.058
*P ≤ 0.05.
**P ≤ 0.01.
***P ≤ 0.001.
Carrying capacity is estimated based on yield, nutritive value, and minimum requirements (National Research Council, 1996) of a 680-kg nonlactating cow at 221 d of pregnancy and temperatures <15°C.
ns, not significant at P ≤ 0.05.
§SE is standard error for intercept and coefficients.