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Monthly average air temperatures (°C), precipitation (including 30 yr average) (mm) and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) (mm) for Las Cruces, NM, during the research period (January 2005–December 2007).

 
Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
——————————————————————————————— Air temperature, °C ———————————————————————————————
2005 8.3 9.3 9.2 17.3 22.2 27.1 28.8 25.7 24.5 16.8 11.2 6.4
2006 8 10.6 13.6 19.3 23.6 27.7 27.7 24.7 20.9 16.1 11.3 5.6
2007 5.3 9.1 14 17.1 21.6 26.3 26.8 27.3 24.2 17.9 11.6 6.4
——————————————————————————————— Precipitation, mm ———————————————————————————————
2005 23 62 4 6 11 0 7 29 64 28 0 0
2006 1 4 0 1 9 6 33 127 112 61 4 3
2007 35 2 2 16 36 49 5 49 28 29 2 7
30 yr mean 10 10 8 6 8 15 39 48 32 20 11 14
—————————————————————————————————— ETo, mm ——————————————————————————————————
2005 66 64 147 216 237 190 234 181 161 100 83 0
2006 75 54 84 178 223 231 210 162 146 103 78 0
2007 65 98 143 179 211 233 203 172 106 126 12 12



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Chemical analysis of potable, moderately saline, and saline water used in the study. Water samples were collected nine times during the research period (March 2005–November 2007) and data represent the average of the nine samplings.

 
Constituents Water quality
Potable Moderately saline Saline
pH 7.98 7.69 7.52
Electrical conductivity, dS m−1 0.6 2.0 3.5
Total dissolved solids, mg L−1 400 1300 2200
Magnesium, mmolc L−1 0.34 0.83 1.24
Calcium, mmolc L−1 1.4 1.6 2.53
Sodium, mmolc L−1 2.9 10.01 17.4
Sodium adsorption ratio 1.55 6.41 8.94
Potassium, mmolc L−1 0.1 0.7 1.3
Carbonate, mmolc L−1 0.00 0.00 0.00
Bicarbonate, mmolc L−1 2.84 6.43 9.95



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Initial (pre-experiment) soil chemical characteristics at the research site.

 
Depth, cm
Soil characteristics 0–10 10–20 50–60
pH 8.7 8.5 8.4
EC†, dS m−1 0.22 0.21 0.23
Mg, mmolc L−1 0.4 0.4 0.4
Ca, mmolc L−1 2.4 2.2 1.7
Na, mmolc L−1 0.69 0.6 1.2
Cl, mmolc L−1 0.2 0.14 0.1
K, mmolc L−1 0.3 0.1 0.1
Sodium adsorption ratio 0.59 0.53 1.17
Organic matter, % 0.4 0.4 0.4
Electrical conductivity of a saturated paste extract.



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Results of ANOVA testing the effects of water quality, irrigation systems, sampling dates, and their interactions on rootzone salinity (electrical conductivity [EC], Na, and sodium adsorption ratio [SAR]) at soil depths of 0 to 20 cm (in 10-cm increments hence depth as additional treatment) and 50 to 60 cm.

 
Effect Soil depth 0–20 cm
Soil depth 50–60 cm
EC Na SAR EC Na SAR
Irrigation (I) ns† ns ns ns ns ns
Water quality (W) *** *** *** *** *** ***
I×W ns ns ns ns ns ns
Sampling date (S) *** *** *** *** *** ***
I×S * * ns ns ns ns
W×S *** *** *** * *** ***
I×W×S *** * ns ns ns ns
Depth (D) *** ns ns
I×D *** ** ns
W×D ns ns ns
I×W×D ns ns ns
D×S ns * ***
I×D×S *** * ns
W×D×S ns ns ns
I×W*D×S ns ns ns
*Significant F test at the 0.05 level of probability.
**Significant F test at the 0.01 level of probability.
***Significant F test at the 0.001 level of probability.
ns, not significant at the 0.05 probability level.



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Results of ANOVA testing the effects of water quality, irrigation systems, sampling dates, and their interactions on quality, spring green-up, and fall color retention of nine turfgrasses.

 
Effect Quality Spring green-up Fall color retention Quality 2007 NDVI†
Cultivar (C) *** *** *** *** ***
Irrigation (I) ns‡ * ns ** *
C×I ns ns ns ** ns
Water quality (W) ns ns ns ns ns
C×W ns ns ns ns ns
I×W ns ns ns ns ns
C×I×W ns ns ns ns ns
Sampling date (S)† *** *** *** *** ***
C×S *** *** *** *** ***
I×S *** *** *** *** ***
C×I×S *** * ns *** *
W×S *** ns * *** **
C×W×S ns ns ns ns ns
I×W×S *** ** ** ns ***
C×I×W×S ns ns ns ns ns
*Significant F test at the 0.05 level of probability.
**Significant F test at the 0.01 level of probability.
***Significant F test at the 0.001 level of probability.
NDVI, normalized difference vegetation indices.
ns, not significant at the 0.05 probability level.
Sampling date for ‘Quality’ indicates monthly visual ratings that were averaged for seasons spring, summer, and fall throughout the research period (2005 to 2007). Sampling date for Quality 2007 and NDVI indicates monthly ratings and measurements from April 2007 to October 2007 only.



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. Quality (from 1 = worst to 9 = best) of nine turfgrasses during spring, summer, and fall in 2005, 2006, and 2007. Data are pooled over three water qualities (potable, moderately saline, and saline) and values represent an average of nine readings (three water qualities and three replications).

 
Cultivar 2005
2006
2007
Mean
Drip Sprinkler Drip Sprinkler Drip Sprinkler
——————————————————————————————— Spring ———————————————————————————————
A138 3.9c†‡ 3.4ef 4.3ab 4.2bc 3.7cd 3.9ab 3.9de
De Anza 2.8e 3.2f 3.3e 3.7e 3.4e 3.4d 3.3g
DT16 4.0c 3.9de 4.6a 4.6a 4.1b 3.8bc 4.2c
Princess 77 4.5b 4.4bc 3.6de 4.1cd 3.9bc 3.9bc 4.1cd
Riviera 3.4dB§ 4.1cdA 3.8cdB 4.6aA 4.1b 4.0ab 4.0cd
NuMex Sahara 4.0c 3.5ef 3.6de 3.8de 3.7cd 3.6cd 3.7f
Sea Spray 5.9aA 5.4aB 4.1bc 4.5ab 4.4a 4.1ab 4.7a
SeaDwarf 4.9b 4.8b 3.9bcd 4.4ab 4.2ab 4.3a 4.4b
Transcontinental 3.9c 3.8de 3.7de 3.7de 3.6de 3.8bcd 3.7ef
—————————————————————————————— Summer ——————————————————————————————
A138 5.3c 4.9e 5.9d 6.1d 5.8e 6.0e 5.7e
De Anza 3.8dB 4.8eA 5.8dB 6.6cdA 6.4cdB 7.4bcA 5.8de
DT16 5.5c 5.7d 6.3cd 6.3d 5.9de 5.9e 5.9de
Princess 77 7.0b 7.2bc 6.7c 6.9bc 7.9a 7.7bc 7.2b
Riviera 5.4cB 6.7cA 6.8bcB 7.2bA 7.3bB 7.8bA 6.9c
NuMex Sahara 5.3c 5.2de 5.8d 6.3d 6.2cdeB 7.2cdA 6.0d
Sea Spray 8.3a 8.1a 7.5ab 7.9a 6.7bcB 7.7bA 7.7a
SeaDwarf 7.5b 7.8ab 7.9a 8.2a 7.9a 8.5a 8.0a
Transcontinental 5.5c 5.3de 6.2cd 6.3d 6.7c 6.9d 6.1d
——————————————————————————————— Fall ———————————————————————————————
A138 4.2e 4.2d 6.0e 5.7e 5.0e 5.2e 5.0f
De Anza 4.8dB 5.8bcA 6.3deB 7cdA 5.8bcdB 6.6bcA 6.0e
DT16 4.8d 4.6d 6.3de 5.7e 5.4de 5.1e 5.3f
Princess 77 6.7b 6.1b 7.4bc 7.3bc 6.8a 6.7bc 6.8c
Riviera 6.2bc 6.1bc 7.4b 7.0cd 6.0bc 6.4c 6.5d
NuMex Sahara 5.6c 5.5c 6.3de 6.7d 5.6cd 5.9d 5.9e
Sea Spray 7.7a 7.6a 7.9ab 7.8b 6.1b 6.9b 7.3b
SeaDwarf 7.6a 7.6a 8.3a 8.8a 6.9a 7.4a 7.8a
Transcontinental 5.7c 5.6bc 6.8cd 6.6d 5.7bcd 5.9d 6.0e
Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different from one another (Fisher's protected LSD, α = 0.05).
Lowercase letters denote differences between cultivars separately for each season (in columns).
§Uppercase letters denote differences between drip and sprinkler irrigation separately for each cultivar and year.



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Spring green-up and fall color retention (from 1 = complete dormancy to 9 = plot entirely green) of nine turfgrasses in 2005, 2006, and 2007. Data for spring green-up are pooled over three water qualities (potable, moderately saline, and saline) and listed separately for drip and sprinkler irrigation. Values represent an average of nine readings (three water qualities and three replications). Data for fall color retention are pooled over three water qualities (potable, moderately saline, and saline) and two irrigation systems (drip and sprinkler irrigation).

 
Cultivar Spring green-up
Fall color retention
2005
2006
2007
Mean 2005 2006 2007 Mean
Drip Sprinkler Drip Sprinkler Drip Sprinkler
A138 5.1a†‡ 5.4a 2.8b 2.7a 1.0 1.0b 3.0ab 2.9e 5.4d 4.3e 4.2e
De Anza 3.7bA§ 2.9cB 2.3cA 1.6cB 1.0B 1.6aA 2.2c 3.1e 5.4d 4.4de 4.3e
DT16 5.4a 5.7a 3.4aA 2.9aB 1.0 1.0b 3.2a 5.6ab 6.8c 5.9a 6.1b
Princess 77 5.3aA 4.2bB 2.1c 1.8bc 1.0 1.0b 2.6bc 5.0cd 7.6b 5.1b 5.9bc
Riviera 3.6b 3.2c 2.1c 2.0b 1.0 1.0b 2.1c 4.7d 7.4b 4.9bc 5.7bc
NuMex Sahara 3.7bA 2.7cB 2.1c 2.1b 1.0 1.0b 2.1c 4.7d 6.7c 4.7bc 5.4d
Sea Spray 5.2aA 4.3bB 1.7dA 1.1dB 1.0 1.0b 2.4bc 5.9a 8.3a 5.7a 6.7a
SeaDwarf 5.0aA 4.2bB 1.4d 1.2cd 1.0 1.0b 2.3c 5.3bc 8.6a 5.8a 6.6a
Transcontinental 3.2b 2.7c 2.3c 2.1b 1.0 1.0b 2.1c 4.9cd 6.8c 4.5cde 5.4cd
Mean 4.5A 3.9B 2.3A 1.9B 1.0 1.1
Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different from one another (Fisher's protected LSD, α = 0.05).
Lowercase letters denote differences between cultivars separately for each season (in columns).
§Uppercase letters denote differences between drip and sprinkler irrigation separately for each cultivar and year.