Evaluation of Zone Soil Sampling Approaches for Phosphorus and Potassium Based on Corn and Soybean Response to Fertilization
- Jorge Sawchikb and
- Antonio P. Mallarino *a
Soil sampling approaches have been compared based on soil-test variation. This study evaluated sampling approaches for P and K based on yield response to fertilization. Strip trials were established on four fields for P and three fields for K managed with corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) rotations and evaluated 3 or 4 yr (27 site-years). Treatments replicated three to four times were fertilizer and no fertilizer application. Soil test results from a dense grid-point sampling (DG) approach (0.08 to 0.27 ha) were used to simulate six approaches: (i) 1.0-ha grid cells (GC), and zones delineated based on (ii) soil series from digitized survey maps (SMZ); (iii) elevation (EZ); (iv) apparent soil electrical conductivity, ECa (ECZ); (v) EZ and ECZ (EECZ); and (vi) EZ, ECZ, and slope (EECSZ). Grain yield monitors, global positioning systems (GPS), and geographical information systems (GIS) were used to describe crop responses. Estimates of soil-test variation were largest for DG, intermediate for GC, and less for other approaches. Crops responded (P ≤ 0.05) to fertilization in 20 site-years. Sampling approaches DG, GC, EZ, EECZ or EECSZ, ECZ, and SMZ identified a differential within-field yield response in 16, 8, 5, 3, 2, and 2 site-years, respectively. Differential yield responses seldom were explained by zone-mean soil-test values. Zone approaches often identified areas with different yield levels but were less effective than DG or GC at describing within-field variation of soil tests and yield response to fertilization. Zone approaches may be more effective in fields with shorter fertilization histories or soils with more contrast in properties.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
Copyright © 2007. American Society of Agronomy