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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 81 No. 4, p. 631-636
     
    Received: July 14, 1988
    Published: July, 1989


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doi:10.2134/agronj1989.00021962008100040016x

Flood Duration Effects on Soybean Growth and Yield

  1. H. D. Scott *,
  2. J. DeAngulo,
  3. M. B. Daniels and
  4. L. S. Wood
  1. Dep. of Agronomy, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

Abstract

Abstract

Flooding is often a problem in areas of the southern USA with high rainfall and impermeable soils. A field study was conducted on two poorly drained, slowly permeable soils, a Sharkey clay (veryfine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, thermic Vertic Haplaquept) and a Crowley silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf), to determine the influence of prolonged flooding on the growth and seed yield of eight determinate soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] cultivars. Soybean was continuously flooded 3 cm above the soil surface at either the V4 or R2 growth stage for 2, 4, 7, or 14 d. Soil water pressures were monitored at four depths in the Sharkey profile. Flood duration effects on the soybean plant were manifested in yellowing and abscission of leaves at the lower nodes, stunting, and reduced dry weight and seed yield. Canopy height and dry weight decreased linearly with duration of the flood at both growth stages. The growth rates were 25 to 35% less when soybean was flooded at R2 than at V4. The additional 4 wk of vegetative growth after flooding allowed the soybean flooded at V4 to recover to a greater extent than the cultivars flooded at R2. A linear relation was found between seed yield and monthly average crop growth rates for the 4 wk following flooding. A linear decrease in seed yield with flood duration was also found. On the Sharkey clay, rates of yield reduction were 157 and 124 kg ha−1 d−1 of the flood for the soybean flooded at R2 and V4, respectively. On the Crowley silt loam, yield reduction rates were 101 and 53 kg ha−1 d−1 of the flood duration for the soybean flooded at R2 and V4, respectively. Crop susceptibility factors (CS) were determined by dividing the decline in yield by the unstressed control, where the 2-d flooded soybean cultivars were considered the controls. Values of CS ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 and were linearly related to flood duration after 2 d. The slopes of the lines were 1.5 times greater for the flood applied at R2 than at V4, and 2.4 times greater with soybean grown on the Sharkey clay than on the Crowley silt loam. The determinate soybean cultivars were more susceptible to prolonged flooding during early reproductive growth than early vegetative growth and when grown on the clayey soil than on the silt loam.

This paper has been approved by the Director of the Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. and was partially supported by the Arkansas Soybean Promotion Board.

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