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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 79 No. 3, p. 570-576
     
    Received: May 19, 1986
    Published: May, 1987


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doi:10.2134/agronj1987.00021962007900030034x

Tillage and Residue Management Effects on Properties of an Ultisol and Double-Cropped Soybean Production1

  1. D. S. NeSmith,
  2. W. L. Hargrove,
  3. D. E. Radcliffe,
  4. E. W. Tollner and
  5. H. H. Arioglu2

Abstract

Abstract

Doublecropping soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has become widespread in the southeastern United States. This has encouraged use of reduced and no-tillage systems, but burning of the wheat straw prior to planting soybean has also become common. A 2-yr field study was initiated on a Greenville sandy clay loam (Rhodic Paleudult) in Georgia to evaluate effects of tillage and residue management practices on selected soil properties and plant growth parameters. Main experimental blocks were split into burned and nonburned wheat straw, and tillage treatments were randomly applied in strips. Tillage treatments were notillage, disk tillage (disk), and moldboard plow (plow). Soil temperature, water content, and bulk density, as well as plant population, height, dry weight, root mass, and seed yield were determined. Notillage with residue resulted in soil surface temperatures 5 to 8°C lower than temperatures measured on bare soil. Also, water content of the upper 0.10 m of soil in the no-tillage nonburned treatment was as much as 30 to 40% higher than other treatments. Bulk densities in excess of 1.7 Mg/m3 occurred under disk and no-tillage at a depth of 0.15 to 0.25 m. This compaction reduced water extraction and plant growth in those treatments as compared to the plowed soil. These results indicate that, for sandy Ultisols with poorly developed structure, tillage pan amelioration may be necessary in the fall to ensure better soil conditions for no-tillage in the spring, as no-tillage tends to preserve the initial soil physical condition. Burning residues did not significantly influence crop growth but did influence soil properties adversely. It is apparent that burning residues is a matter of convenience for ease of planting but is of no agronomic benefit.

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