Short-statured Rice Response to Seeding and N Rates
- B. R. Wells and
- Wade F. Faw
Research on response of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) to interactions of seeding rate and N rate is very limited, although considerable work has been done in the tropical countries with transplanted rice. Understanding responses by U.S. rice cultivars to these factors is important not only for optimizing management, but also because it provides information concerning the need for further improvement of plant type. Therefore, our objective in this study was to determine what factors might limit performance of ‘Starbonnet’ rice when subjected to a range of seeding and N rates. This study was conducted in field plots for 2 years on a Crowley silt loam soil (Typic Albaqualf) at the Univ. of Arkansas Rice Branch Experiment Station, Stuttgart, Ark. A split plot design was used. Time of N application (preplant or topdress) was the main plot and all possible combinations of seeding rates of 67, 135, and 303 kg/ha and N rates of 67, 135, and 202 kg/ha were the subplots. All treatments were replicated four times. The following measurements were taken: grain yield; stand counts prior to tillering and at maturity; blanks per panicle; florets per panicle; dry weight at heading and maturity; percent N in the flag leaf at heading; leaf area index (LAI) at heading
Excessive vegetative growth before anthesis limited grain yield from dense plant populations. This was evidenced by high LAI at heading, reduced dry matter accumulation after heading, and adequate N levels in the flag leaf under conditions of dense population. Further indication of the effect of excessive vegetation prior to anthesis was shown by the fact that number of florets per panicle had more influence on grain yield than did blanks per panicle.
Increasing the N rate from 135 to 202 kg/ha increased grain yield only for the 67 kg/ha seeding rate in 1972. Time of N application (preplant or topdress) did not influence grain yield.
Under the direct seeding conditions of this study initial plant population, rather than tillering, accounted for the number of panicles per unit area. As seeding rate and plant population increased, number of florets and blanks per panicle decreased. Increasing the N rate increased both florets and blanks per panicle. Both increased seeding rate and N rate resulted in increased LAI.
Under the conditions of this test the major factors that limited yield under dense population appeared to be light and CO2, since extra N fertilizer was ineffective.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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