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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 70 No. 1, p. 5-8
     
    Received: Apr 7, 1977
    Published: Jan, 1978


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doi:10.2134/agronj1978.00021962007000010002x

Influence of Subsurface Layered Herbicides on Horsenettle and Various Crops

  1. P. A. Banks and
  2. P. W. Santelmann2

Abstract

Abstract

Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) is a perennial weed species of increasing importance in much of the southern and eastern U. S. Experiments were conducted to determine the usefulness of subsurface layering (SSL) of herbicides for the control of horsenettle in several crops. Herbicides were applied to horsenettle infested fields with spray nozzles mounted beneath a 2.4 m wide sweep type plow operated about 20 cm below the soil surface. Crops were then planted. Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) were successful for horsenettle control but severely injured broadleaved crops planted over the SSL. Dinitroaniline herbicides generally suppressed emergence of horsenettle plants up to 82 days. Postemergence treatments of 2,4-DB [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid] plus SSL dinitroaniline treatments did not enhance horsenettle control above that achieved with 2,4-DB alone. Trifluralin (α,α,α-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) and fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-(decrease in yields of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.), and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) when used SSL. Butralin [4-(l,l-dimethylethyl)-N-(1-methylpropyl)-2,6-dinitrobenzemamine] caused the least yield reductions. Trifluralin was more soil persistent as a SSL than dinitramine (N4N4-diethyl-α,αα-trifluoro-3,5-dinitrotoluene-2,4-diamine). These two herbicides were also more persistent when applied deeper in the soil.

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