Influence of Management and Season on Fate of N Applied to Golf Greens
- K. W. Brown,
- R. L. Duble and
- J. C. Thomas
Because golf greens are constructed of very sandy soil mixtures over a gravel and tile drainage system and subjected to heavy irrigation schedules, there is a high potential for loss of applied N through leaching. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of management practices during different seasons on the fate of N applied to golf greens. Small isolated golf greens (3 m on a side) were constructed according to USGA specifications and equipped with drainage and runoff collection systems. Mixtures of sand and Houston black clay soil (Udic Pellusterts) were used in some plots while others were made of a Tabor sandy loam soil (Udertic Paleustales). All plots were planted with Tifdwarf Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L). N sources were applied at various rates during different seasons. The golf greens were irrigated at three different rates. Leachate and runoff samples were analyzed for NO3 to evaluate the influence of management practices on N losses from the golf greens. The results show that N losses and concentrations of NO3 in the leachate immediately after application of soluble sources were a function of the rate of N and water applied. When the irrigation rate was kept at or near the evapotranspiration rate, the loss of NO3 from inorganic soluble sources was minimized. The irrigation rate did not affect the NO3 losses from organic sources. Seasonal studies indicated that losses and concentrations of NO3 were highest in winter. This appeared to be associated with the large volume of water which leached from the plots during the season. It was concluded that N losses and NO3 concentrations could be lowered by: using organic sources of N; reducing irrigation rates to equal the evapotranspiration rate; and decreasing fertilizer rates during periods of slow growth.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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