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This article in AJ

  1. Vol. 103 No. 6, p. 1724-1733
     
    Received: May 27, 2011
    Published: Nov, 2011


    * Corresponding author(s): robert.schwartz@ars.usda.gov
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doi:10.2134/agronj2011.0165

Manure and Mineral Fertilizer Effects on Seasonal Dynamics of Bioactive Soil Phosphorus Fractions

  1. R. C. Schwartz *a,
  2. T. H. Daob and
  3. J. M. Bella
  1. a USDA-ARS, Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX 79012
    b USDA-ARS, Environmental Management and Byproduct Utilization Lab., 10300 Baltimore Ave., Bldg. 308, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705

Abstract

Seasonal fluctuations in bioavailable soil P can influence soil test results and associated assessment of off-site transport risk. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soil P speciation and availability with time following applications of grain fed cattle (Bos taurus) manure or monoammonium phosphate (MAP). Beef cattle manure or MAP was applied at a targeted rate of 200 kg P ha−1 on a Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed, superactive, thermic Torrertic Paleustolls) in 2005 and 2006 and planted to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Soil samples (0–0.15 m) were collected before and throughout the growing season and analyzed for Mehlich-3 phosphorus (Me3P), 1:10 water-extractable phosphorus (WEP10), water extractable cations, pH, and fractions of bioactive soil phosphorus (TBIOP), which comprised 1:100 water extractable P, ethylenediamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetate (EDTA)-exchangeable inorganic phosphorus (EEPi) and the EDTA-exchangeable phosphohydrolase-labile phosphorus (EPHP). Levels of soil Me3P, WEP10, and all fractions of TBIOP in MAP-amended plots fluctuated significantly (p < 0.05) during both seasons. Except for Me3P, manure amended plots also exhibited significant (p < 0.05) seasonal variations in soil extractable P and a delayed release of P that extended well into the growing season. In contrast, fluctuations in extractable soil P in unamended plots were not significant except EPHP. In water extracts, a significant (p < 0.05) dependence of solution P on pH and Ca suggested that precipitation-dissolution reactions contributed to observed seasonal fluctuations in P. Fluctuations in total bioactive soil P were two to four times greater than aboveground biomass P highlighting the importance of accounting for seasonal dynamics in assessing offsite P transport risks.

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Copyright © 2011. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Inc.